Real Family Farming in Tionesta, PA
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Yesterday, Dan and I spent a good part of the evening on yet another restoration project. We're now the proud owners of a John Deere that will make making hay a whole lot easier. While we have been using the dump rake for the last few seasons, and then using pitchforks to load the hay by hand onto the hay wagon, it is a time-consuming way to make hay, not to mention very labor-intensive. We love the antique methods and are proud to utilize them, but the John Deere will save both labor and time, although it will modernize our process a bit.
But no, we haven't given up our horse-drawn ways in favor of a tractor. John Deere originally manufactured farm implements for use with teams of horses, not tractors, because the company has been around since before tractors were used out in the fields. Our John Deere is a single cylinder hay loader. It attaches to the back of the hay wagon and picks the loose hay up off of the ground and then piles it on to the wagon. This moves our haymaking technology up to the level of our Old-Order Amish neighbors (although the loaders they use are of a more modern design).
This type of hay loader is both rare and old. We feel very lucky to have come across it. Dan was hired to do some foundation work on a barn, and this hay loader was inside. The barn's owner was willing to part with it, because to him, it was just something taking up space that he had no use for. By his estimate it had sat, gathering cobwebs and dust, for 60 or more years. Although there is no date on the machine, between what he told us and the research we've done online, we estimate that it was probably made in the 1920's or shortly thereafter. However, “John Deere Single Cylinder” is still readable in the paint on the side boards, along with a running deer logo that is a bit different than the one that graces today's big green tractors. Since it was barn-kept, it is in great shape overall. But, of course, after sitting that long, some repairs are going to be necessary. The first order of business was lubrication- all the moving parts need to be greased or oiled to run smoothly, and that hadn't been done since the machine went into storage. The hay loader works by utilizing thin boards and ropes to form a sort of conveyor belt for the hay to travel up. A few of the boards were broken, and the rope was mostly baler twine. We did consider just doing the minimum and replacing only the broken boards, but the ropes were a mess and in the end we decided to replace all of it. So last night, we unhooked the chain and laid the track out on the ground. Old boards were removed, with new ones put into place. Then 6 rows of new rope were hand-stapled into place. The hardest part was threading it back through the guides and pulleys to refasten the chain links, but with some patience that was accomplished as well.
There is still a bit of work to be done, but it is nearly field-ready. We are waiting for a forecast with a bit less rain, and then Dan will be out mowing hay. Once it dries, we'll put our “new” hay loader to the test. We're very excited about this, not only because of the back-breaking labor that it will eliminate, but also because it's a really neat piece of farming history. Even we have never seen one like it in use, so we're anxious just to watch it work!
Emily tightening up the bolts that hold the boards in place.
Dan threading the newly repaired conveyor through the guides & pulleys
Posted by Emily
@ 11:22 AM EDT
It's hard to believe, but by Sunday our opening day of the farm stand season will be behind us. Now is the time where I get a bit antsy, worrying that I won't have enough things ready to fill the tables. It's really hard to have fresh produce on May 26, especially when we've had a frost as late as June 2! (and yes, that was only two or three years ago, not ancient history!) Although I know that we've been doing prep for months, there is only so much we can put in without running a near-certain risk of losing the plants to frost damage. So it gets to be a little nerve-racking when opening day arrives, because it seems as hard as we try, we never have just the right weather to have a bounty of produce to fill the tables. Yet it's bad business to have lots of empty space, so I usually spend the last couple weeks fretting about having enough for opening day.
I spent the better part of yesterday setting up the stand. Dan rented a power washer Monday night, so the heavy scrubbing was done, but there is still a lot involved getting the tables set up, putting up tablecloth and skirting, wiping out fridges and freezers, and figuring out what I had in stock and where it all should go. While I put the tables back in pretty much the same spots they were before, I quickly realized that, instead of worrying about how to fill all this empty table space, I needed to get creative to find a space for everything we have!
The cheese will no longer be sitting on ice, with just one example of each kind. Thanks to my mom letting me have my old dorm fridge back, cheese will now be self-serve. We're hoping to fit a plexiglass door on the front, but it's just not likely to happen before Saturday. So I squeezed that next to the “free sample” table. Also on that table is a new feature for the stand...the feather jewelry I created over the winter. I also have cute wreaths I made from the hop vines last year. And I have lots more canned goods starting off the year than ever before- 5 kinds of jam, 4 kinds of mustards, 6 different vinegars, dill pickles, hot pepper rings, corn relish, sweet relish, apple butter, Thai dipping sauce, 2 BBQ sauces- one made with peaches and the other with rhubarb. Non-canned edibles include sun dried tomatoes and a couple kinds of homemade egg noodles, plus honey.
Today I'm picking up coffee...three regular flavors plus (ground or whole bean) and an assortment of flavored coffees. I'm really excited about getting a tasting tour of Happy Mug's coffee. We are very excited to have a local roaster who uses organic, fair trade and farm direct beans! We're also looking to put our own stone grinder at the stand, so folks who want to grind their own coffees can!
We'll also have meat. The broilers may be a bit smaller than usual, but we'll have some ready to go. We'll also have pork chops, ribs, roasts and three or four varieties of our homemade sausage. Bacon, ham and beef will be in the very next week. We'll have some chicken eggs, and new for this year, quail eggs as well.
Outside the stand, we've got an assortment of bedding plants. A wide variety of herbs, plus a few tomatoes, flowers, hop vines and whatever else I started but ran out of room in the garden for. Come Saturday, I'll bring down some of the baby chicks, turkey poults and quail. Maybe some baby bunnies too. There are peacock feathers, and some cat toys made from those feathers too. I'll also have bouquets of some fresh herbs...I just need to find a place to set them!
I know since it's a farm, I'll get at least one request for fresh sweet corn or ripe tomatoes, even though I do think that folks are getting better about understanding just what seasonal means. But even if we only have rhubarb and spring onions to pick out of the garden, I think we'll still be off to a great start for our farm stand season!
We hope you'll join us as we open for the season! Brave the heat and stop by to say hi this Saturday, May 26, from 10 AM- 2PM.
If you can't make it this weekend, we'll be open all the way through November!
Posted by Emily
@ 10:03 AM EDT
When you hear the word teamster, what springs to mind? Unions? Jimmy Hoffa? Big 18-wheeler trucks hauling freight down the interstate? (And yes, I am going somewhere farm-related with this...)
Originally, a teamster was one who drove a team of horses. Someone who made their living with a set of reins in hand. Back before tractors and big rigs, there were big horses. They were used to plow the fields and to pull wagons, loaded with goods, from town to town. Interestingly enough, the word “teamster” stuck with the freight haulers, but not the farmers when hooves were replaced with steel. So today, most Americans think of teamsters as truckers, but it is also a word proudly used by the small but dedicated group of people who choose to farm with horses, like Dan and I. Being a teamster, in the old-fashioned sense of the word, is really a dying art, although it does seem to be making somewhat of a comeback with the increases in both interest in sustainable farming practices, and also the cost of diesel fuel. Being an old-fashioned teamster AND a woman is rarer yet. And while I certainly am no expert (I won't even think about working the horses if Dan isn't home, just in case), I do take great joy in helping to do some of the real work of the farm with those lines in my hand.
Two weeks ago, Dan spent a good part of the weekend walking behind the plow. This weekend, we finished the rest of the soil prep. So on Saturday, Dan harnessed up the horses and ran the disc and harrow. Both of these machines break up the large clods turned over by the plow into smaller, more workable pieces. Next comes the cultipacker. It's like a big roller with a seat above. You ride it, and it basically smashes the remaining small clods. It is my absolute favorite piece of machinery to run. Probably because it was the first piece I ever drove without Dan being right next to me. That, and it's hard to mess up. If you miss a spot, you can go back and catch it on the next pass. If you go over the same spot twice, it's fine. But of course, it's a point of pride to try and have those rows straight and even, and doing it efficiently means you spend less time doing it, which is important too, since there is never enough time in the day to get everything done on a farm, especially in spring. Having grown up riding horses (I met my horse just before my 12th birthday), I'm quite used to a set of reins in my hands. But there is something different when you're driving a team. I'm not sure if it is because you're controlling them in a different way- using only voice and pressure from the lines as opposed to the subtle ways all your muscles communicate when astride- or if it's the size thing. I love Dixie & Dolly, I often feed them, bring them inside the barn, clean their stalls...I'm very comfortable working around them. But they are big. Really big. Their backs are at least as tall as the top of my head when I stand next to them, and at 5'4', I'm not terribly short. Their feet are literally as big as dinner plates. We estimate their weight to be somewhere between 1800-2000 pounds. Each. There is incredible power in those muscles, and especially as a novice teamster, I'm very aware of that when I take up the reins.
But through generations of breeding and hours of training, the horses really do seem to understand, even enjoy, their job. When we got to the end of a row, almost before I changed the pressure on the reins to tell them to turn, Dixie & Dolly were already moving to turn the cultipacker. When it works, it is amazing...a feeling of two horses, a person, and some otherwise lifeless equipment, all moving as one through the field, with the smell of fresh spring soil everywhere. It's almost magical. There really is a sense that we are all taking pride in our work, all three of us. Heads up, backs straight, we move together across the freshly turned earth, preparing it for another spring of new life, and another season of producing real food. Using many of the simple, effective, and sustainable methods that American farmers used for generations, when small family farms were the norm, and not the exception. Except for the neighbors driving by in cars and my purple plastic sunglasses, it could be a scene from 1912 as easily as 2012.
But of course, as easy as it is to be charmed into that daydream by the creak of leather and the jingle of metal, I snap out of it soon enough, when Dixie tries biting Dolly again on another turn, or when the pair of them want to go too fast across the field. Make no mistake, for all the idyllic splendor of the scene, it is real work. But the kind of work that leaves you with both tired muscles and a sense of accomplishment at the end of the day. It makes me proud of what we do, and just as importantly, how we do it.
Posted by Emily
@ 01:35 PM EDT
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What is it like to be a farmer? Here's
an example of a typical spring day. This is an actual journal of a
real day, selected at random, in this case Monday, April 30, 2012.
Get up. As Dan checks on the large
animals, I get up and check the incubator. Pull 13 chicks & 2
turkeys out and take them to the brooder pen, where food & water
await under the heat lamp. When I open the pen, I sadly note a dead
turkey poult- it looks like it drowned, as its head is still in the
waterer. I never have understood how something 6” tall can drown
in 1/2” of water, but it seems turkeys manage. The heritage
breeds, like our Bourbons, are much smarter than the broad-breasted
ones, but still, you lose one every once in awhile. Nature is not
kind to the weak or dumb. Then I do the rest of my AM chores- making
sure the rabbits, chicks, chickens & ducklings have food and
water. Dan tells me to keep an eye on Finni, our Dexter cow- we let
her and the new calf out of the barn yesterday, and although
everything seems to have gone well so far, it looks like the calf got
under the fence into another part of the pasture. If he can't find
his way back, I'll have to take care of it.
Household stuff- take mail out to the
box, grab newspaper, check email. While I'm online, I place a bulk
order for pectin for my jelly & jam making. This should save
money and keep my supply in stock for most, if not all, of the farm
stand season, so I'm excited to have found a family-owned bulk
supplier of the stuff. Head outside to get the load of jeans out of
the washer & hang them up on the line outside (I don't have a
dryer). As I'm hanging jeans, I'm relieved to see that the calf and
Finni are together on the same side of the fence. He must have
scooted back through whatever hole he went through in the first
place. Before I take the hose away from the washer and take it back
to the greenhouse, I decide to do another load, so I put in some
sheets and towels. While that is going, I head downtown (to
Tionesta, ~5 miles each way) to grab a few supplies. I get brown
sugar and raisins at the grocery store, and more peat pots for the
greenhouse at the hardware. While there, I talk to one of the
owners- she asks what we've got growing in the greenhouse these days,
comments about the snow last week pulling the trellis in the garden
down, and asks what it's for- beans? No, peas, I reply, too early
for beans yet, although we're both looking forward to the warmer
weather coming this week. It's real small-town America- doing
business and conversation with your neighbors, literally.
I get home and unload the car, then the
washer. After the sheets are hung, I drag the hose up to the
greenhouse and water any of the flats that look a bit dry. A few I
hold off on- if I repot them this afternoon, it actually helps if
they are a bit dry. The rhubarb is growing like crazy, and the
groceries I picked up are for my Sweet & Tangy Rhubarb-B-Q sauce,
so I pick enough to make up a batch. The stems pull out easily, and
I have kitchen shears with me to cut off the leaves before I bring it
inside- they are actually poisonous! I put on an apron and consult
the recipe, then chop up 16 cups worth of rhubarb. Almost everything
I do in the kitchen is by hand or with hand tools, and this is no
exception. It's just me, the rhubarb, a cutting board, and a sharp
knife. After the rhubarb, I chop an onion and then begin mixing the
ingredients in the pot to begin cooking down.
Make some more coffee- that reminds me,
I've got to talk to Dan about putting in a coffee order...we've got a
new business partner, Happy Mug Coffee in Tidioute, and we need to
get our order in so the coffee can be roasted, packaged & picked
up before the opening day at the stand, which is less than a month
away now! Stir the sauce, and then find a catalog for Welp's
hatchery. I need to call and order the next batch of broiler meat
chicks. All goes well, and I should have poultry in the mail next
week. The canner begins to boil, so I add the pint jars I'll be
using to sterilize them. Stir the sauce again so it doesn't scorch, them
go out to get the mail. As I walk to the mailbox, I notice a turkey
walking around the barnyard. The turkey hens have a funny walk just
after laying an egg, and I see this, so I make a mental note to check
the turkey nest in the bottom of the barn later, and if it is empty,
to look around for a new one. As I get the mail, I see a white shape
in the woods and hear a familiar yowling. It's Whitey the barn cat,
whom I haven't seen for almost a week. Although my least favorite
of the kitties (because of the constant yowling), I'm glad to see
him. Cats are a favorite food of coyotes, and we've had plenty of
kitties disappear without a trace, which always makes me sad. But,
on the other hand, that means I can let the kittens hang around here.
I have 3 kittens right now, I hear them on and off throughout the
day as Little Girl thought that the best place to give birth would be
in a cubbyhole under the clean towels in my bathroom. They're about
10 days old now, so before too long I'll relocate them somewhere more
suitable once they get mobile. Mostly junk mail, but excited to see
my renewal of National Geographic has come, and bundled with the
newest issue is the back one (last month's) I missed! I had no idea
they would send it when I renewed, but thank you, Amazon, I guess.
This makes me excited, as we save them and keep them in our library
upstairs (we have hundreds, literally) and now I won't have a missing
Stir the rhubarb again and clean up the
kitchen, doing dishes. (nope, don't have a dishwasher either. On
days when I'm canning a lot, I may do 4-5 sinkfuls by hand.)
Eventually, the sauce is thick enough to be ladled into the hot jars
and put in the canner for processing. Now I can relax a tad and have
lunch. As I'm heating up some leftovers, I see the calf by himself,
so I walk out into the pasture to see where his mother is. Turns
out, she was just hidden from my sight by some trees, and looks at me
as if to say “What are you worrying for? I have this under
control!” But as I'm walking back, I feel a few sprinkles, so I
take the laundry in. Luckily, most is dry already. I decide to eat
first, then fold & put away. I eat quickly (I don't even take
enough time to finish reading the paper), then fold the laundry.
Next is taking the hot jars out of the canner to cool and seal. As
I'm doing the second round of dishes, Dan stops in; he'd come to get
a chainsaw & trailer for the next job of the day and dropped off
the zip ties I'd asked him for.
After he leaves, I head to the barn,
zip ties in hand. The net roof of the peafowl pen is sagging, and
it is catching the males' tails as they show off. By bunching up the
net at the edges, I can tighten it with the zip ties. I've been
meaning to get to this forever, so I figured now was as good a time
as any. The peafowl are the wildest of the creatures we raise- they
go out of the barn if I come into their pen to feed, unlike
everything else around here which pretty much runs up to anyone
holding a feed scoop. But they are magnificently beautiful birds. I
really don't spend as much time just looking at them, admiring them,
as I maybe should. It's easy to take things for granted when you see
them every day, even things of great beauty. I really try not to do
that. After I finish up with the net, I see the water pan is empty,
so I grab a bucket and head to the hydrant.
Another task down, and I need to decide
whether to clean the chicken coop or transplant seedlings in the
greenhouse. I love greenhouse work, but cleaning bird pens is pretty
much my absolute least favorite farm activity. I decided to clean
the coop, mainly so I could not dread it tomorrow. Manure happens on
a farm. I'll clean stalls all day without complaint. Manure powers
our farm- it's how the pastures stay so green, and how we can grow
amazing amounts of garden produce without chemical fertilizers. I
have a deep appreciation for the stuff and its place in the circle of
life. It's just poultry manure I find so unpleasant. I don't think
that's unreasonable though, as it is either thick, heavy, and with an
overpowering, gagging reek of ammonia, or dry and like a fine powder
that becomes airborne when shoveled, coating your hair, skin, the
inside of your nose. When I clean the pens, it's about a 50/50 mix
of both types. I'd cleaned the peafowl & turkey pens yesterday,
so if I just suck it up I'll be all done, I tell myself. The other
downside to cleaning these pens is that it's pretty much impossible
to get the horse-drawn manure spreader close enough. The best way,
unfortunately, is for me to shovel it into a plastic bushel basket
with handles, then carry the basket to the spreader and dump it in.
Between the two pens yesterday, I carried 15 basketfuls, each
weighing about 50 lbs, maybe more. Today's job will be a little bit bigger yet.
I dig in and got to work. By basket
#12 I need a short rest and something to drink, so I go up to the
house. The calf is up and about, but again, Finni is just out of
sight. I begin to suspect the calf is stuck, sort of- he's in a
small patch of pasture bordered by fence on one side & the creek
on the other. It's where he's been all day. The creek there is
small- just about 3” deep by 6” wide in most spots right now.
But, I guess, scary enough when you're only 8 days old. I walk out
with the idea to either shoo him or pick him up and set him down on
the other side. He first runs up to me, then turns and starts running
up the fence line toward mama. If he stops at the creek, I figure
I'll just scoop him up (well, as much as you can scoop up anything
weighing 80 lbs) and set him on the other side. Finni looks up and
sees the scene playing out. Her maternal instinct must have kicked
in, as she starts running in our direction. This is not funny or
cute; this is about 1,000 lbs of mama cow, complete with a set of
horns which are plenty big and pointy enough to impale a human. I
wasn't close enough to see the look in her eye, but I wasn't taking
any chance that she just wanted a cookie. I run for the patch of
scrubby trees, the closest thing I could get to. She stops about 20
yards away from me, hollers at her kid, eyes me, and moseys back.
Although she didn't come any further than the calf, I figured the
only critter in potential danger was me, so I leave the calf to figure
out the solution on his own and go back to the coop, where it is still stinky, but safe. Basket #19 is the last, whoo hoo! I walk
down to the barn and get some pelletized lime to sprinkle on the
floorboards, which helps to absorb the ammonia smell. I go upstairs
to the hay mow to fill my basket one last time, this time with sweet, clean hay for
bedding. I spy something white streak out of the barn as I startle
it by opening the door. It's either Whitey again, or else Itty Bit,
my prized mouser. I return to the coop and spread the lime &
bedding, then grab the waterer. While the feed can wait another hour
or two until I do PM chores, it's never good to leave the waterer
empty. I put the waterer back, full, and open the coop doors. The
chickens pop in from their outdoor runs, both for a drink and for the
fun of scratching around in the new bedding.
By now, it's 3 PM. I'm sweaty and feel
rather disgusting. All I want is a shower, but I look up at the
thermometer for the greenhouse and see that it is 105 degrees,
meaning I should really go open the other door for more ventilation.
That done, it's shower time! Yay! Once I get out, I spy the lone
cupcake left on the kitchen table from last week (I made some for a
friend's birthday). I figure 19 bushels of manure x 50 lbs or more
each = about half a ton of manure moved by hand today. That's
certainly enough calories burned to earn a cupcake!
I hear Dan & Matt pull in; their
workday is over. Dan is super excited because he's got a log
splitting machine in tow behind the van. They got it at work, and it
looks to be old and homemade. It makes the models for sale in front of places like Tractor Supply look small in comparison. The engine has a crank start, and
looks a lot like the Wisconsin engine Dan rebuilt a few winters back.
We could sure use a splitter since we heat the farmhouse with wood, and although the engine didn't fire right away,
it seems as though it's moved to the top of Dan's project list.
I go inside and return a call to the
man who runs Whispering Brook Cheese Haus in Chambersburg. We've
been playing phone tag for a few days, so it's good to hear him
answer. I finalize our order for raw milk cheese so we'll have it on
hand opening day for the stand. We'll go pick it up in about 2
weeks, which works well...if we plan it right, we'll be able to take
both our moms out for a meal for Mother's Day. Dan and I also discuss
what we think will work for our new partnership with a local coffee
roaster, Happy Mug Coffee of Tidioute. Dan and I are on the same
page about what we think our first order should look like, but we
both have questions, so I'll email the coffee guy tonight or tomorrow
and go from there.
PM chore time comes next. Check the
incubator again, a few more chicks & another poult. Time to
carry feed for the rabbits and chickens, each in a 50 lb bag that
must be moved from the stand. My arms scream in protest at the
thought, but Dan takes pity on me and carries them for me tonight. Rabbits
fed & watered, ditto for the quail, ducks, chickens, peafowl and
turkeys. As I feed the rabbits, I notice Finni & the calf are
with the rest of the cows, by the pond. He's made the creek
crossing, so that's one less thing to worry about. Eggs are collected
now too. I don't have as many chicken eggs as normal, but that is
OK. I figured shutting them out of the coop for a couple hours this
afternoon would have that effect. Next I go across the street, to
the woods to check turkey nests. My heart sinks as I see the
feathers. We've already lost two hens to nighttime predators this
year. I try to be diligent about counting heads in the evenings, and
this one wasn't sitting on the nest the last I checked yesterday, but
there weren't tail feathers everywhere the last time, either. Back I
go, to see if by some chance she escaped. I'm only counting 5
hens...one is missing. But the hen perched on the fence by the gate
has about 5 tail feathers left. Bingo! We have a broody hen...and
she's alive. I walk up and grab her by the ankle. I carry her off
to the backyard and put her in a chicken tractor, one we usually use
for meat birds. It was empty, so now it will be a sort of turkey
jail. I'll keep her there a few days to a week, until she stops
sitting across the road. I feed her and walk away. She clucks
unhappily, but she's alive. As I walk away, I see another turkey
hen, returning from a nest just beyond the blacksmith shop, so all
turkeys are now present & accounted for.
Next, dinner time for us. I'm making a
favorite recipe of Dan's, pork chops with caramelized onions. I sear
the chops (home-raised, of course) in a cast-iron skillet, and
caramelize an onion in another. Then I put the chops in an ovenproof
dish and top with a bit of butter, some sage (homegrown) and the
onion, then put in the oven for about 45 minutes. Then I slice a few
potatoes into wedges and toss with butter, Parmesan cheese and some
seasonings. I place those on a baking sheet, and into the oven they
go as well. As it cooks, I do dishes. Again.
After we eat dinner together, more
business. It's time to sit down with the mushroom spawn catalog and
figure out an order. We're very interested in adding edible
mushrooms, like shiitake and oyster, to our market lineup. This will
be a new process, but it seems low-maintenance, with the possibility
of fruitings over several years after the initial investment. Dan has some fresh logs that will
be suitable, so we're eager to get this project underway. We talk
about what to feature for the May newsletter, which I need to finish
and send out in the next day or so. I mention ordering strawberry
plants as well, and Dan shows me a part he took off the log splitter
motor which will need taken out for repairs tomorrow. By now, it's
about 9 PM. Time for bed.
While this day had more completed
projects than most, it's really not unusual for us to do so much in a
day. Doing as many different things as we do, you have to work hard,
but also smart, or you'll never get it all done. And it's always
necessary to pay attention to the critters, the plants, and what is
going on. It becomes second nature to be alert, as it is often far
easier to prevent a problem than to fix it, whether it is an invasion
of cucumber beetles in the garden or an issue with the animals. In
plenty of cases, like the broody turkey, you can't fix it after the
fact. One she becomes something's dinner, there is no undoing. And
yes, I do cook from scratch pretty much every night. While it is so
easy to say, “I don't have time,” I'm pretty sure I'm just as
busy as you. In fact, I know I'm busier than when I worked away from
the farm. If I can do it, you can too, it just comes down to a
matter of importance- is it more important to be quick & easy, or
healthy and sustainable? It's a question everyone has to answer for
themselves. Anyways, I hoped you enjoyed a detailed look into what
really goes into being a farmer. It's so much more than just being outstanding in your field.
Posted by Emily
@ 09:45 AM EDT