Medicine Woman

  (Waynesville, North Carolina)
dangerous herbs, medicinal herbs, culinary herbs
[ Member listing ]

CASCARA SAGRADA (Rhamnus Pursbiana) a/k/a sacred bark

   The native Americans used this for hundreds of years as a laxative.

Cascara Sagrada was accepted in medical

practice in the United States in 1877.

 

The bark should be dried for at least one year

before using.  Fresh cut, causes vomiting and

violent diarrhea

 

However, in 2002 The FDA has issued a ban in

the use of Cascara Sagrada as a laxative

ingredient in over the counter drug products. Use

of Cascara Sagrada has been associated with

abdominal pain and diarrhea; it is potentially

carcinogenic.

 

 

Cascara Sagrada has also been associated with

the development of chronic hepatitis. Short term

use may cause a terrific gripping effect on the

intestinal system, intestinal distress, including

inflammation of the colon, nausea and vomiting

and chronic or dangerously severe diarrhea.

Nursing mothers  who use this will pass the          

laxative effect to their infants. The strain on the

intestines and forced diarrhea could kill the infant.

Pregnant women can go into labor using Cascara

Sagrada.

 

Long term use can lead to disorders of heart and

muscle function.

 

Cascara Sagrada acts unfavorably with

prescription medications.

 

 

You can find excellant quality and safe herbs, herb teas, bath herbs and salves in my store here on  LOCAL HARVEST  

Local Harvest.com .  Look for

SPICES &   HERBS BY ELAYNN    

 

 

 

Natural Health Magazine  The Complete Guide to Safe Herbs    by Chris D Meletis

 

The Complete Guide to Herbal Medicines  by Charles W. Fetrow  and Juan R. Avila

 

WebMD.com

 

Wikipedia

 

www.livestrong.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa)

BLACK COHOSH   (Cimicifuga racemosa)

 also known as black snakeroot, rattleweed, rattleroot, bugbane, bugwort, squaw root

 

 Do not confuse black cohosh with blue cohosh or white cohosh. These are unrelated plants. The blue and white cohosh plants do not have the same effects as black cohosh, and may not be safe.

 

Black Cohosh is an American herb, introduced into medical practice in America in 1828 and used briefly in Europe around 1860.  Only recently has Black Cohosh been given attention once again as an herb for menopausal symptoms.

 

 Black cohosh was used by Native Americans as a traditional folk remedy for women’s' health conditions, such as menstrual cramps and hot flashes, as well as  arthritis, muscle pain, sore throat, cough and indigestion. The juice of the plant was used as an insect repellent and was made into a salve and applied to snake bite.

 

 Black cohosh was also one of the principal ingredients in Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound.

 

 Today, black cohosh is used primarily as a nutritional supplement for hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, vaginal dryness and other symptoms that can occur during menopause, as well as for menstrual cramps and bloating.

 

Side effects of black cohosh may include:  indigestion, headache, nausea, vomiting, and heaviness in the legs, weight gain, low blood pressure, seizures, visual disturbances and slow or irregular heartbeat. There have also been a number of cases of liver damage suspected to be associated with black cohosh.

 

People with a history of blood clots or stroke, seizures, liver disease and those who are taking medications for high blood pressure should not use black cohosh.   And because it may act like the hormone estrogen in the body, black cohosh could interfere with hormone replacement therapy or oral contraceptives.

 

Black cohosh may interfere with the effectiveness of the chemotherapy drug CISPLATIN. Also, combining black cohosh with the drug ESTRADIOL,(Alora, Combipatc, Estrace,, Estraderm, Fem Patch, Vivelle, ) could raise the body's estrogen level too high.

 

You should not use black cohosh if you have a hormone-sensitive condition, such as breast cancer, endometriosis, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, or fibroid tumors or,  if you have liver damage or drink alcohol in excessive quantities. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid black cohosh as the herb may stimulate contractions and lead to premature labor or miscarriage.

 

 It is suggested that you not use black cohosh for longer than 6 months

 

  In August 2006, Health Canada advised consumers of the possible link between black cohosh and liver damage. In June 2007, the United States Pharmacopeia proposed that black cohosh product labels contain a cautionary statement

 

 

You can find excellant quality and very  safe herbs, herb teas, bath herbs and salves in my store here  on LOCAL HARVEST ! Local Harvest.com .  Look for SPICES &   HERBS BY ELAYNN    

 

 

The Complete Guide to Herbal Medicine  by Charles W. Fetrow and Juan R. Avila

 

The Honest Herbal  by Varro E Tyler

 

Natural Health Magazine Complete Guide to Safe Herbs  by  Chris D. Meletis

 

101  Medicinal Herbs  by Steven Foster

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

SOME GOOD IDEAS ON HOW TO DRESS IN COLD WEATHER

I used to live in the Adirondack Mountains in northern New York State and also in the state of Maine, so, I have had plenty of experience with cold weather, including getting stranded with my car, sliding into  snow banks or ditchs and, with children with me.  I also have looked up a couple of good websites, listed at the end of this blog and scrambled everything up to give you friends some ideas of how to dress properly in this freezing cold stuff.  ENJOY! And thanks to the websites that helped out here!

 

To start with ..stay inside as much as possible.  If you have to go out, shorten your stride in snow, ice, sleet, or heavy rain. Dress in layers. What does that mean? 

 

 

Layers means clothing that accommodates other clothing to keep your body warm in cold weather, whether you are going to stay inside or go outside.   Proper winter dressing means three layers:  wicking, insulating and protection.

 

 

The first layer is what is called wicking: This is the layer worn next to your skin, usually consisting of  thermal underwear made of a synthetic , usually polyester,  fiber that has "wicking" power. This means the fibers will wick (move) moisture away from your skin and pass it through the fabric so it will evaporate. This keeps you warm, dry and comfortable. Silk is good, as is cashmere and is a natural fabric that has wicking abilities.  Wool also is good. While the polypropylene layers are important, keep in mind that wool offers added protection to stay warm because, even when wet, wool will keep you warm. The wicking layer should fit snugly (not tight) next to the skin in order to effectively wick moisture. Comfort is key for the insulating layer. It should be loose enough to trap air between layers, but not so bulky that it restricts movement.

 

 

THE SECOND LAYER is called Insulating layer which includes sweaters, sweatshirts, vests and pullovers. The purpose of this layer is to keep heat in and cold out, which is accomplished by trapping air between the fibers. Popular insulation materials include:

 

•Fleece, a synthetic material which maintains its insulating ability even when wet and spreads the moisture out so it dries quickly.

 

•Wool, which naturally wicks away moisture.

 

While denim is not waterproof,  denim jeans is a good wind breaker when just doing errands or anything that isn't going to involve much water.  Also, if you wear denim jeans, wear them inside your boots so that they don't get wet and it won't be next to your skin. Water will soak through and you'll end up cold, wet and miserable. (Trust me! Jeans don’t dry fast and will stay wet and even get ice on them!)

 

Don’t wear cotton including: cotton athletic socks, cotton jeans, cotton sweatshirts, or cotton T-shirts. Cotton absorbs moisture (sweat and snow), and retains it. When the wind blows, you will get very, very cold.

 

Wear tights , long johns or  thermal leggings whenever you wear a skirt or dress or pants.  (Ladies, this will keep you warm whether you are inside or out! )

 

 

For men or women, a good choice will be a shirt that is a blend of Merlino wool and polypropylene or a heavier shirt of polypropylene, several of which have a “waffle” style construction on the underside. On really cold days a wool shirt will be the final layer that will be topped off by a cold weather, windproof jacket. So a wool shirt is a good investment!

 

One pair of light-weight or medium-weight socks works best for skiing, snowboarding or snowshoeing. Socks are made from a variety of materials, including polyester, silk, wool and nylon. Some socks have wicking properties similar to long underwear, meaning your feet will stay dry and comfortable. If you are going to be inside, a pair of slippers  that are crochet, knitted or even another heavier pair of socks is nice to wear over regular socks.

 

 

THE THIRD LAYER is known as protection layer or exterior layer. This is generally outside clothing such as coats, jackets and pants, hat, gloves, etc.  They serve as your guard against the elements of winter. They should repel water from snow, sleet or rain and block the wind, while also letting perspiration evaporate. For jackets and coats, goose down is the warmest insulation for its weight, and the higher the “fill” number, the better it insulates. Don’t let the down get compressed or it will loses its insulating ability.  A nice wool coat isn’t a bad investment either. I'm partial to fur coats and jackets as well as hats, as there isn't anything much warmer.

 

For recreation in the snow and cold, such as skiing, skating, snowboarding: one-piece suits, which combine a jacket and pants, are popular with many skiers, (and not a bad idea for the kids to play outside in either) especially on cold days and days where there is a lot of fresh powder snow. Look for functional hoods, cuffs, pockets and zippers ; details that truly make garments comfortable in a snowstorm.  Most snowboard clothing is still designed to fit looser than alpine skiwear, giving snowboarders freedom of movement. In addition, many snowboard pants are reinforced in the seat and knees for extra protection when kneeling or sitting on the snow.

 

 

Up to 60 percent of your body's heat can escape from an uncovered head, and can give you a headache. Wearing a hat, especially made from fleece or wool is or crochet or knitted a good idea. Next a wool or crochet or knitted,  scarf tucked in around the collar of your coat. The scarf can be loosened when needed to regulate heat loss during exertion. Wearing the scarf around your neck, mouth and nose will keep out the cold from entering your lungs. 

 

Look for gloves and mittens that use waterproof, breathable fabrics. Mittens, in general, are warmer than gloves, but offer you less dexterity. But, if your are just walking, mittens are good.  If you get leather gloves, be sure that there is a good lining in them and they should feel warm when you first try them on. Other gloves that are warm can be found in places such as Walmart, Target, TJ MAX, etc.  Snowboarding gloves and mittens often have a reinforced palm because of extra wear from adjusting bindings and balancing on the snow. Some snowboarding gloves and mittens also have built-in wrist guards, which are excellent for novice snowboarders. Cross country skiing gloves tend to be lighter-weight for extra movement and because you perspire more.

 

Sunglasses and goggles protect your eyes from damaging solar radiation. Look for 100 percent UV protection in sunglasses. Make sure the glasses fit snugly behind your ears and rest gently on the bridge of your nose. Snow, or any other reflective surface, makes ultraviolet (UV) rays stronger, while increased altitude also magnifies the danger. On flat-light days or when it's snowing, goggles are vital. They protect your eyes and special lens colors increase the contrast so you can properly discern terrain features. Goggles should form an uninterrupted seal on your face, extending above your eyebrows and below your cheekbones. Watch for gaps, especially around your nose.

 

 

FOR THOSE OF YOU WHO HAVE CHILDREN:   Cold weather can be dangerous for kids if they aren't dressed warmly.

 

  Avoid Cotton. Clothes made of cotton do not have the ability to insulate the child if they do become wet. Buy winter garments and clothing made of fleece and wool in order to keep your child warm.

 

Also, children can lose ‘up to sixty percent’ of their body heat if their heads are exposed so make sure that your children always have a hat on whenever they go out in the cold weather and keep it on. Always make sure that your children have socks and shoes or slippers on when  inside and warm socks and boots on when outside, no matter how young they are.  Also, put tights or legging under their dresses or pants; put a sweater or sweatshirt over their dresses or shirts. Wearing long john pants and shirt will help keep your youngster warm and toasty! Make sure that their dresses and shirts are long sleeved.

 

Keep an eye out that your children do not get wet while playing in the snow or on the ice, as it may seem “warm” to them.  However, the wetness makes children that much more vulnerable to the dangers of hypothermia and frostbite.

 

 

If you can’t just go out and buy all this clothing that is needed, you can find a lot of good, warm clothes at thrift stores , Good Will and Salvation Army places.  For those of you who are having financial difficulties, try calling the Red Cross  or shelters and see if they can help you. 

 

 

 

 

 

WinterFeelsGood.com

 

 Read more: http://www.nydailynews.com/sports/more-sports/tips-run-safely-cold-weather-article-1.1549696#ixzz2pScHRKar

 

Charlie Burchfield is a past president of the Pennsylvania Outdoor Writers Association          GWOutdoors@comcast.net

 

http://www.kansas.com/2013/12/23/3192317/dress-for-warmth-with-the-right.html#storylink=cpy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Look for boots that go up to just below the knee and are made of insulated material or leather with a good, warm lining.  Stay away from the manmade pretty boots that will get ruined if they hit the water and are oftern cold to wear.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HERBAL PROPERTIES PART TWO

THIS IS PART TWO:

We often hear words such as aleratives,  anti

microbial , aperient, cholagogue and other strange

sounding names.  But, what are they?  These are all

called actions or herbal properties. They refer to the

energetic pathway of how an herb affects the body. 

Every herb has more than one such action. 

Here we will find out some of the actions and which

herbs have these actions.  This is just   enough

information to give you an idea of what these terms

mean and what herbs would be in each category. Many

herbs are in many different categories, thus, making them easy to work with. 

This is by no means conclusive and I probably won’t be

able to list every herb in every category. 

Like I have mentioned before, herbalism is a huge

field.      Also, I am mentioning herbs that have been

used   and some people have found them to work. 

This does not mean that I necessarily condone the use

of some of these herbs.  For herbs that I really would

not use myself I have an * just after the herb.  

 

 

PART TWO: 

 

DIAPORETIC  this is an action that aids the skin in the

elimination of toxins and promotes perspiration.

Commonly used as an aid in the relief of common

colds.  Diaphoretics act most favorably when

administered hot, before bedtime.

EXAMPLES:  angelica*, bayberry, blessed thistle, 

 Boneset,  catnip, cayenne, chamomile, elder flowers,

garlic, ginger, golden rod,  hawthorn,  hyssop, linden

flowers, lime blossom, peppermint, sassafras root,

thyme, white horehound,  yarrow

 

DIURETIC  increases the elimination of urine from the

body.  The fastest action generally is obtained by liquid

diuretics taken on an empty stomach and taken during

the day.  Physical exertion retards the effects of

diuretics.

EXAMPLES;   agrimony*  , bearberry* ,   bilberry,

boneset, borage, broom, buchu,  burdock root, celery

seed,   corn silk*, couch grass*,  dandelion leaf, , elder,

Hawthorn berries, horse tail,  juniper, lime blossom, 

 parsley , saw palmetto,  yarrow

 

 

EMETIC   herbs cause one to vomit. The main use of

emetics is as a first aid treatment of poisoning, where

they will empty the stomach content. .Most emetics

work through irritation, either of the stomach or the

nervous system.

 

EXAMPLES:  blood root*, boneset, elder flowers, white horehound, Echinacea,  lobelia* senga*, squill*

 

 

 

EMMENAGOGUE  Stimulate menstrual flow and activity. This term is often employed in the wider

context of tonics to the female reproductive systems.

EXAMPLES:  beth root*, black haw*, blessed thistle,

chamomile, chaste tree*, cramp bark, fenugreek,

gentian*, ginger, golden seal, juniper berry, calendula,

motherwort, mugwort, parsley, pasque flower*,

pennyroyal*, peppermint, raspberry, sage, rosemary,

rue*, southernwood*, squaw vine*, tansy* , vervian*,

wormwood*, yarrow

 

EMOLLIENT  herbs are  applied to the skin to soften,

soothe or protect it. They act externally in a manner

similar to the way demulcents act internally. Emollients

should  NOT  be used externally.

 

EXAMPLES: borage, chickweed*, coltsfoot*, comfrey,

elecampane*, fenugreek, flax seed, licorice,

marshmallow, mullein, oatmeal, plantain, slippery elm bark.

 

 

EXPECTORANT  support  the body in the removal of

excess amounts of mucus from the respiratory system.

Expectorants are often combines with DEMULCENTS .

 

 

EXAMPLES: aniseed, Balm of Gilead, balsam, blood

root*, coltsfoot*, comfrey (never used comfrey

internally), elder flower, elecampane*, garlic, golden

seal, hyssop, Iceland moss*, Irish moss*, licorice,

lobelia*, lungwort, marshmallow, mullein, pleurisy root,

senega*, skunk cabbage (if you’re brave), squill*,

thuja*, thyme, vervain*,white  or black horehound, wild

cherry

 

 

FEBRIFUGE a/k/a    ANTI PYRETIC   they bring down fevers.

EXAMPLE :   angelica*, blessed thistle, boneset,

borage, cayenne, elder flower, hyssop, pennyroyal*,

peppermint, raspberry, sage, vervain*

 

 

 

GALACTAGOGUE  help increase the flow of breast milk

EXAMPLES:   aniseed, blessed thistle, centaury*, fennel seed,  goat’s rue*

 

 

 

HEPATIC  aid the liver by toning and strengthening  it,  and increases the flow of bile.

 

EXAMPLE :  agrimoney*, aloe* (not internally), balmony*, barberry*, boldo, cascara segrada*, celery

seed, centaury*, clevers*, dandelion  root or leave,

elecampane*, fennel, fringe tree, gentian*, golden seal,

horseradish, hyssop, lemon balm,  milk thistle,

motherwort, Mountain Grape, yarrow, yellow dock*

 

 

 

HYPNOTIC    these herbs are meant to induce sleep,

but, not in a hypnotic trance as in a “high”.   I believe

these would be used in an instance of helping a person

to go into a deep sleep so that the body can heal. 

 

 

EXAMPLES:  chamomile, lime blossom, vervain*,

hops, skullcap*, valerian*, Jamaican dogwood*,

passion flower*, black haw*, cramp bark

 

 

 

LAXATIVE    these herbs promote the evacuation of the bowels

 

EXAMPLES:  balmony*, barberry*, buckthorn*,

burdock root, cascara sangrada*, clevers*, dandelion

root, flax seed, fringetree*, Mountain Grape, yellow

dock*. 

Personally, I think the best ones to use to get the

plumbing system moving are four sticks of licorice

candy and handful red grapes every day!  Easy!

 

NERVINES  a/k/a  RELAXANTS       these herbs tend to abate or relax temporarily, non-serious nervous

irritation, due to excitement, strain or fatigue.  Nervines

are beneficial in toning and strengthening the nervous system.

 

 

EXAMPLES:  black cohosh*, black haw*, blue

cohosh*, bugleweed*, chamomile, cramp bark,

damiana*, ginseng, hops, kola*, lavender, lemon balm,

lime blossom, lobelia*, mistletoe*, motherwort*, oat

straw, pasque flower*, passion flower*, peppermint,

red clover, rosemary, skullcap*, valerian*, vervain*

 

 

 

OXYTOCIC   stimulate the contraction of the uterus

and can help in childbirth for reasons such as: to

induce labor, in the removal of retained placenta and

management of post-partum bleeding. However, some

of these medicines have harmful side effects and

when taken in large quantities can lead to the death of

the unborn baby and/or uterine rupture, and other

longer term effects on the mother or baby. ( i.e you

might not want to fool around with this type of thing)

 

I personally would not use the following, however,

raspberry leaf, partridge berry and stinging nettle would

likely be safe enough to use.

This I found at  US National Library of Medicine

National Institutes of Health 

  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3407953 /

however, once again, I personally would not advise

using the herbs.  According to the just mentioned

website; “to induce labour (blue cohosh, black cohosh

and beth root) [99]. Preparations of black cohosh root

(Actaea racemosa [Nutt.] L.), Goldenseal root

(Hydrastis canadensis L.) and Chaste tree fruits (Vitex

agnus-castus L.) are listed in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia

and are available as dietary supplements to be used

for premenstrual stress syndrome, as emmenagogue

agents and for gynaecological problems” 

  HOWEVER, My findings   come up with the facts

that:   BLUE COHOSH is potentially toxic effect by

constricting the coronary blood vessels, thus

exerting a toxic effect on the cardiac muscle and

causes internal spasms.     BLACK COHOSH can

cause nausea and vomiting; low blood pressure

and Black cohosh should not be taken at all, for

any reason, by a pregnant woman!.  BETHROOT 

a/k/a birth root  can cause vomiting and has toxic

effects on the heart. Bethroot may stimulate the

uterus, but, not in the way one might desire! Little

scientific evidence supports bethroot’s traditional

uses in promoting childbirth and delivery or 

 managing postpartum bleeding. CHASTE TREE

side effects include abdominal pain, cramping,

diarrhea, headache, increased blood flow in the

vagina area, uterine bleeding.   GOLDENSEAL

ROOT  causes excessive sleepiness, slows down

breathing , reduced mental alertness , tingling in

the arms and legs, paralysis, seizure, slow pulse,

vomiting. 

I delivered two of my babies at home and the placenta

held back on the first one.  So, after ½ hour of this

stuff, I simply put a (throw up pan or wash basinJ) in

between the toilet seat to catch the placenta  and made

myself an 8 oz glass of orange juice and 2

tablespoons of caster oil.  Trust me, it works and fast! 

The placenta was not torn anywhere.  End of problem!  J

IF A WOMAN IN LABOR IS HAVING DIFFICULTY

DELIVERING, SHE SHOULD BY ALL MEANS GO

TO A HOSPITAL.  THERE ARE SOME THINGS

THAT HERBS CAN NOT DO.  You’re messing

around with two lives!  (particularly  if you really

don’t know what the heck you are doing!)

 

 

PECTORAL    These herbs have the general

strengthening and healing effect on the respiratory

system, in other words, good for the lungs.  These

herbs are used to strengthen a weak chest. 

 

 

EXAMPLES: elecampane*, mullein, white horehound,

coltsfoot*, yarrow,  cayenne,  lobelia*,  blood root*,

sage, thyme, marshmallow, licorice, elder, hyssop, garlic.

 

PART THREE TO FOLLOW

 

 

You can find excellant quality and  safe herbs, herb teas, bath herbs and salves in my store here on LOCAL HARVEST!

 

Local Harvest.com .  Look for

SPICES &   HERBS BY ELAYNN    

 

 

THE HERBAL HANDBOOK by David Hoffman

COMMON SENSE   J by SPICES & HERBS BY ELAYNN

US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3407953

THE COMPLETE ISSUSTRATED HOLISTIC HERBAL by David Hoffman

THE HERBALIST by Joseph E.. Meyer

THE LITTLE HERB ENCYLOPEDIA by Jack Ritchason N.D

THE  COMPLETE GUIDE TO HERBAL MEDICINE  by Charles W. Fetrow and Juan R. Avila both pharmD

THE HONEST HERBAL  by Varro E. Tyler

Tags:
 
 

HERBAL PROPERTIES

PART  ONE

 

We often hear words such as aleratives,  anti

microbial , aperient, cholagogue and other strange

sounding names.  But, what are they?  These are all

called actions or herbal properties. They refer to

the energetic pathway of how an herb affects the

body.  Every herb has more than one such action. 

Here we will find out some of the actions and

which herbs have these actions.  This is just

enough information to give you an idea of what

these terms mean and what herbs would be in

each category. Many herbs are in many different

categories, thus, making them easy to work with. 

This is by no means conclusive and I probably

won’t be able to list every herb in every category. 

Like I have mentioned before, herbalism is a hugh

field. 

 Also, I am mentioning herbs that have been used

and some people have found them to work.  This

does not mean that I necessarily condone the use

of some of these herbs.  For herbs that I really

would not use myself I have an * just after the

herb.

 

 

ADAPTOGENS   Enable the body to avoid

reaching a point of collapse or over stress b/c it

can adapt “around” the problem.   They help the

body deal with stress.  Adaptogens seem to

increase the threshold of resistance to damage

via support of adrenal gland and pituitary gland

function. A/K/A a tonic, especially when an herb

can have a normalizing effect.

 

 

EXAMPLES: dong quai, panax ginseng, Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus),

 

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Adaptogen are Hawthorn, Lime blossom and garlic

 

For the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: mullein

 

 

 

 

ALTERATIVES    are so called blood cleansers;

however, what they really do is act to alter the

body’s process of metabolism so that tissues can

best deal with the range of functions from

nutrition to elimination.  Many of the herbs with

this action improve the body’s ability to eliminate

waste from the body through the kidneys, liver,

lungs or skin.   They help assimilate nutrients and

eliminate metabolic waste products.  Alteratives

are good for skin diseases, arthritis and auto

immune problems.

 

EXAMPLES:   burdock root,   (for skin problems:

combine burdock root with red clover or yellow

dock *)  

  FOR THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM: use

Echinacea and marigold. Also nettles, alfalfa,

dandelion root, sarsaparilla 

 

 

 

 

ANTHELMINTIC  destroy or expel worms from the digestive system.  This term is synonymous with Vermifuge and Anti Parasitic.

 

EXAMPLES:  aloe * (not internally), garlic, pomegranate, tansy (not internally), thuja, wormwood, and rue*

 

 

 

ANALGESICS   relieve pain.

 

EXAMPLES:  chamomile, catnip, cramp bark, lobelia*, valerian*

 

 

 

ANTACIDS   neutralize excess stomach acid

 

EXAMPLES:  fennel, kelp, slippery elm

 

 

 

 

 ANTI ABORTIVES  inhibit simultaneous abortion and bleeding

 

EXAMPLES:   red raspberry, skullcap*, cramp bark*

 

 

 

ANTI ASTHMATICS   relieve wheezing

 

EXAMPLES:   mullein, lobelia*, wild cherry bark

 

 

 

ANTI BILIOUS       These herbs help the body to

remove excess bile and can thus aid in cases of

biliary and jaundice conditions.  Compare wirh

Cholagogues and Hepatics, with whom they are

often synonymous.

 

 

EXAMPLES:   balmony*, barberry*, dandelion, fringetree *, golden seal, mugwort, vervain*, wild yam, wormwood.

 

 

 

ANTI BIOTICS  is acutrally ANTI MICROBIAL  

 inhibit or destroy bacteria and viruses while

stimulating the body's immune response.  The

only time we should use anti biotic is in an

emergency.

 

EXAMPLE:  Echinacea, goldenseal, thyme, juniper berries

 

 

 

ANTI CATARRHALS  eliminate and help prevent

excess mucus formation (sinus area)  These are

used for ear, nose and throat infections.

 

EXAMPLE: golden rod * is one of the best plant

remedies we have for catarrhal states, especially

for upper respiratory catarrh, whether acute or

chronic. It may be used in combination with other

herbs in the treatment of influenza.  (for upper

respiratory  Echinacea, elder, golden rod)

 

Elder is another herb. Use the flowers ( may use

elder flowers with peppermint, yarrow or hyssop

for colds and fevers.)

Peppermint can be used widely wherever there is

excess mucous being secreted. Peppermint is

one of the best carminative agents available. 

Use with elder flowers and yarrow.

 

OTHER HERBS THAT ARE ANTICATARRHAS:   cayenne, garlic, marshmallow, mullein, sage, thyme

 

EXAMPLES: cayenne, ginger, cinnamon, anise, mullein,

 

 

 

ANTI EMETIC   reduce a feeling of nausea and can help relieve or prevent vomiting.

 

EXAMPLES:  black horehound,   ( combine with

meadowsweet and chamomile)

Lemon Balm    combine with hops, chamomile or

meadowsweet. For digestive trouble.  (for stress

and tension use lemon balm and lavender)

 

OTHER HERBS THAT ARE ANTI EMETIC:   cayenne, dill, cloves, fennel, ginger

 

 

 

ANTI INFLAMMATORY   help the body to combat

inflammations Herbs mentioned  under

demulcents, emollients and vulneraries will often

act in this way, especially when they are applied

externally.

 

EXAMPLES:  chamomile, white willow bark , 

 

ANTI INFLAMMATORIES FOR DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE BODY:

 

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: these herbs may be of

use for reducing inflammation in blood vessels:

lime, hawthorn berries, yarrow

 

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: chamomile, licorice, golden seal, calendula, peppermint

 

URINARY SYSTEM: golden rod

 

MUSCLES AND SKELETON  willow bark, meadowsweet, feverfew.

 

 

 

ANTI LITHIC   are herbs that prevent the

formation of stones or gravel in the urinary

system and can help the body in the removal of

those already formed.   Anti lithics should always

be used with demulcents and anti microbial

herbs.  There were no herbs listed that I would

use. But for those of you who want to know:

pellitory of the wall (Parietaria diffusa); buchu,

bearberry , juniper, hydrangea (Hydrangea

arborescens); parsley piert (Aphanes arvensis);

gravel root, couchgrass, stone root, sea holly,

wild carrot

 

 

ANTI MICROBIAL   herbs can help the body to

destroy or resist pathogenic microorganisms.  It

is a mistake to talk about remedies being

“anti biotic” as this literally means anti life.

Many plants with this action are also anti

inflammatory and  anti bacterial, anti fungal, anti

viral.  The only time we should ever use anti

biotic is in an emergency. 

 

EXAMPLES:  Echinacea is the prime remedy to

help the body rid itself of microbial infections. It is

effective against both bacterial and viral attacks,

by supporting the body’s own immunity.   Used

with yarrow it will effectively stop cystitis.

 

OTHER Herbs THAT AR ANTI MICROBIAL: 

aniseed, caraway, cayenne, clove, coriander,

eucalyptus, garlic, juniper, marigold, marjoram,

peppermint, plantain (not internally), rosemary,

sage, thyme.

 

 

 

ANTI PYRETICS  reduce fever by neutralizing acidic blood and cooling the body.

 

EXAMPLES: elder flowers, peppermint, basil, skullcap*

 

 

 

ANTI SEPTICS  inhibit bacteria growth both internally and externally

 

EXAMPLES:   thyme, sage

 

 

 

ANTI SPASMODICS  relax muscle spasms and cramps

 

 

EXAMPLES:  for  the  respiratory system:  thyme, aniseed, oregano, and garlic

 

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM:  chamomile, hops, peppermint, sage, thyme, dill, fennel

 

 

 

APERIENT      is a mild and gentle form of

laxative. aperients work in such a way that only

the natural bowel movements and functions are

promotes.

 

EXAMPLES:   Rhubarb root Rheum palmatum

(not the garden rhubarb that we make pies and

jellies with). Psyllium, linseed, agar agar, yellow

dock root*,  dandelion root, burdock root,

cleavers.

 

 

 

 

APHRODISIACS  rejuvenate sexual organs and their functions

 

 

EXAMPLES:  ginseng, garlic

 

 

AROMATIC  herbs have a strong and often

pleasant odor, which can stimulate the digestive

system.  and are useful in aromatherapy. 

 

EXAMPLES:  aniseed, , fennel, caraway, white

horehound, lemon balm, basil, caraway,

cardamom, celery chamomile, cinnamon, cloves,

coriander, dill, fennel, hyssop, ginger,

meadowsweet, peppermint, rosemary, sage

 

 

 

ASTRINGENTS  

 ( a/k/a  ANTI HAEMORRHAGIC) dry up 

discharges, swollen tonsils, and hemorrhoids. 

They are also wound healing and act as a barrier

against infection.  Int the gut, they reduce

inflammation and inhibit diarrhoes and are widely

used in the various diseases of digestion. They

are symptomatic, not preventative.

 

EXAMPLES:  aloe juice*, shepherd's purse, white

oak bark, blackberry leaves, self heal, turmeric,

ginger, meadowsweet, comfrey  (not internally) ,

marshmallow root , yarrow (not internally)

 

 

 

 

BITTER   These are herbs that have a

predominately bitter taste.  Because of Bitter

herbs wide effect on the body’s physiology they

help enormously in treating the body as an

integrated whole. 

 

EXAMPLES:  yarrow (not internally), dandelion

leaf, rue, wormwood, gentian root*, hops,

valerian*, white horehound,  greater celandine*,

barberry*, balmony*,  boldo,  golden seal,

centaury*, chicory, mugwort, blessed thistle,

willow bark

 

 

 

 

CARDIAC TONIC   general term for herbal remedies that have a beneficial action on the heart. 

 

EXAMPLES:

 

FOR THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: hawthorn berries, yarrow, rosemary, lemon balm, garlic.

 

FOR THE MUSCLES AND SKELETON SYSTEM:   cayenne, ginger, mustard 

 

 

 

CARMINATIVES  relieve gas and intestinal

stagnation, while increasing circulation.  These

aromatic spices can be used daily to promote

better digestion, assimilation, and elimination

 

WARMING CARMINATIVES work best for people

who have weak digestion

EXAMPLE:  anise, basil, bay leaves, ginger,

cinnamon, cloves

 

COOLING CARMINATIVES work well for people

who get toxic headaches from the foods they eat

or overeat.

 

EXAMPLES:  mints, chrysanthemum, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel

 

 

 

 

CHOLAGOGUES  promote bile flow and stimulate peristalsis

 

EXAMPLES:  aloe vera (not internally) , Oregon grape root,  barberry, culver’s root*, wild yam root

 

 

 

DEMULCENTS soothe inflamed tissue

 

EXAMPLE:  comfrey leaves (not internally); marshmallow root, slippery elm, flaxseed tea, fenugreek

 

 

DIAPHORETICS  promote sweating as a warm

tea and act as diuretic when served cold. Primary

action is on the respiratory system and sinuses. 

 

EXAMPLES: ginger, flaxseed, sage

 

STIMULATING DIAPHORETICS are hot and pungent. They drain the lymphatics.

 

EXAMPLES:  camphor, basil, cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, eucalyptus (not internally), ginger, sage, thyme.

 

RELAXING (COOLING) DIAPHORETICS  reduce

fevers and remove toxins from the skin. They

perform well at the onset of acute symptoms of

hysteria.

 

EXAMPLES: catnip, chamomile, chrysanthemum,

peppermints, elder flowers, yarrow flowers,

boneset

 

 

 

 

Tags:

 
 

PART 5 OF POISONOUS PLANTS THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES

Here is a list of POISONOUS PLANTS throughout the

UNITED STATES for those open minded people who do

not really believe that all herbs are for human or even animal

consumption, and can comprehend the fact that many herbs are poisonous.

 I'm not going to go into the description of these plants, you can usually get a good colored picture with descriptions

from other books and online.  However, many books and

often online information  do not even state if the plant is

poisonous or not.  So, I'm going to go through as many plants that I can find and think of and just give the common names of the plants, the Latin names, other plants that may

be related, where they are most apt to grow and the dangerous part of the plant and symptoms of poisoning.  

 

YOU MAY EMAIL ME FOR A PDF FORMAT AND I WILL GLADLY SEND IT TO YOU.

 

THIS IS PART 5 and the last of this series:

 

 

POKE WEED/ROOT   Phytolacca americana L.)  of the poke weed family   a/k/a  poke root, poke salad (or poke sallet), poke berry, poke, Virginia poke, inkberry, cancer root, American nightshade, pigeon berry

 

MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING Pokeweed is found from Maine to Minnesota  and southward, and is fairly common in southern   and southeastern Iowa.   Usually, it grows in rich pasture lands, in recently   cleared areas, along fencerows, and in waste places and open spots in woodlands.   

 

 USES:   Proponents claim that pokeweed can be taken internally to treat a number of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, tonsillitis, mumps, swollen glands, chronic excess mucus, bronchitis, mastitis, and constipation.

They also say that the herb is an effective treatment for fungal

infections, joint inflammation, hemorrhoids, breast abscesses, ulcers, and bad breath. Herbalists also claim that external

application of a preparation made from the plant relieves itching, inflammation, and skin diseases.

 

 

DANGER:   All parts of the pokeweed are poisonous, particularly the roots. The leaves and stems

are next in toxicity, and the berries have the smallest amount of poison. The entire pokeweed plant

contains a poisonous substance similar to saponin. The alkaloid phytolaccine also occurs in

small amounts However, children have been poisoned by eating raw pokeweed berries, and some

have died. The practice of brewing pokeweed plant parts with hot water to make tea has caused poisoning. Thoroughly cooking the plant reduces its toxicity.

 

SYMPTOMS:The effects of eating the uncooked or improperly prepared plant can include

nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headaches, blurred vision, confusion, dermatitis,

dizziness, and weakness. Convulsions, low blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, heart block (a

blockage of the electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to contract), and death may occur.   If

taken internally, pokeweed is a slow acting but a violent emetic. Vomiting usually starts about 2

hours after the plant or parts of it have been eaten. Severe cases of poisoning result in purging, spasms, and sometimes  convulsions. If death occurs, it is usually due to paralysis of the respiratory organs.

 

CAUTION:   BE VERY WARY OF ANY HERBALIST

 WHO  GROWS AND SELLS THIS HERB.  They are

not knowledable  enough  to differentiate between safe

and unsafe herbs

 

 

 POINSETTIA   (Poinsettia pulcherrima R. Grah)  other related plants ornatmentals such as E. Marginata (snow on the mountain), E. Cyparissias (Cypress spurge), E. Milli Ch. Des Moulins

(crown of thorns cactus), E. Lactea Haw. (Candelabra cactus) and  E. Tirucalli L. (pencil, Malabar or spurge trees) also contains irritant juice and are potentially dangerous.

 

 MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING  as a houseplant or in greenhouses throughout the temperate zone, frequently used for winter decoration because of its showy red bracts. Native to tropical Mexico and Central America

 

 DANGER   young children have ready access to this house plant. The leaf is what appears to be poisonous.

 

SYMPTOMS  prior to death the symptoms were vomiting and purgation of the bowels accompanied by delirium. The milky sap is capable of producing blistering of the skin and gastroenteritis.

 

 

 

 ROSARY PEA/ PRECATORY BEAN  ( Abrus precatorius L) 

 

 MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING in the southern US as a tropical plant or ornamental. Necklaces and trinkets made with the seeds were formerly common in North America, Britain and Europe.  It is now banned in many places but may still be encountered.

 

 DANGER the seeds are very toxic, less than one seed contains enough abrin to kill an adult.

 

 SYMPTOMS:  at first gastrointestinal, with purging and temperature fluctuations followed by incoordination and paralysis.  Many different tissues are found to be damaged during post mortem examinations.

 

 CAUTION:  growing plants, seeds and any objects containing the seeds should be considered highly dangerous.

 

 

 

 RHUBARB  (R.xcultorum   or  Rheum Rhaponicum)) of the Buckwheat family  This is the rhubarb that grows  in your garden.

 There is another RHUBARB  that appear to grown in China or Turkey and is known as medicinal rhubarbs.  They are  R. palmatum and R. officinale also members of the buckwheat family.

 

 MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING   commonly cultivated as a food plant for its edible petioles in Britain, Europe and North America. The original plant was probably from Siberia.

 

 DANGER  The leaf blades contain dangerous quantities of oxalic acid and soluble oxalates and have caused deaths when eaten as a vegetable, even when small quantities were consumed

 

 SYMPTOMS  ingestion of large amounts of raw or cooked leaf blades can cause severe abdominal pains and cramps, nausea, vomiting, weakness, labored breathing, internal bleeding,

reduced urine formation, convulsions and coma followed rapidly by death. Blood clotting is reduced, probably due to combination with plasma calcium to form oxalates.

 

 CAUTION:  The only part that can be safely consumed safely is the reddish stem. 

 

BE VERY WARY OF ANYONE WHO CLAIMS TO BE KNOWLEDABLE OF HERBS AND USES RHUBARB  AND DOES NOT STATE IF IT IS  

(R.xcultorum   or  Rheum Rhaponicum  or R. palmatum and R. officinale  AS A MEDICINAL. 

 

 

 

 

SPURGE LAUREL/MEZEREON  (Daphne mezereum L)  other related pants: D.laureola L  has blue/black fruit and persistent leaves.  D. cneorum L  has orange and D genkwa Sieb & Zucc. white fruits

 

 MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING commonly grown as an ornamental in gardens and used by flower arrangers in Europe, Britain and North America.

 

 DANGER  the fruit especially, but other parts as well. The juice of the plant is a primary irritant and produces burning and inflammation of the mouth and throat.

 

 SYMPTOMS:  Severe gastroenteritis occurs with vomiting and bloody diarrhea. Weakness, stupor, renal damage with hematuria and convulsions may occur before death

 

 CAUTION:   HIGHLY DANGEROUS

 

 

 

 

 TRUMPET FLOWER/ Chalice vine  (Solandra guttata Don.)  other related plants: most of the six or so species of SOLANDRA are considered toxic

 

 

MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING commonly cultivated outdoors in the warmer parts of the US and in greenhouses elsewhere in North America, Europe and Britain, Native to Mexico

 

 DANGER   the plant contains solanine type alkaloids and may produce poisoning if eaten.

 

SYMPTOMS:  dry throat, headache, weakness, fever, delirium, hallucinations and circulatory and respiratory failure. Death has occurred from chewing fragments of the flowers.

 

 

 

 

 WILD BLACK CHERRY  (Prunus serotina Ehrh)  other related plants:  the fruit stones of nearly all species of   Prunus are considered toxic--including many with edible fruits

such as apricot, peach, bitter almond, cherry laurel  and wild cherry due to the presence of cyanide producing glycosides.

 

 

 MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING  found in woods and hedges in the eastern US and Canada.

 

 DANGERS   children have been poisoned and died from eating the kernels which contain a cyanogenetic glycoside.  The leaves are also toxic. The amount of other food eaten greatly influences the amount of cyanide absorbed. In small amounts the blood may remain red even in the veins, due to upsetting of the normal use of oxygen by the body tissues.  In larger amount a short period of rapid breathing is followed by collapse and death.

 

CAUTION   they should never be eaten like nuts

 

 

 

 VIRGINIA CREEPER /WOODBINE   (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L)        A member of the grape family.

 

 MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING in the US, Britain and Europe.   Is commonly cultivated in gardens and around houses.

 

 DANGER:  the berries have proved to be toxic among both animals and humans

 

 

You can find excellant quality and very safe herbs, herb teas, bath herbs and salves in my store here on LOCAL HARVEST!

 

Local Harvest.com .  Look for

SPICES &   HERBS BY ELAYNN    

From the book  DANGEROUS PLANTS  BY  JOHN  TAMPION

 

101 Medicinal Herbs  by Steven Foster

 

The Honest Herbal by Varro E Tyler

 

Dr. James Duke, formerly chief of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Medicinal Plant Resources Laboratory

 

The 'PDR for Herbal Medicines'

 

http://www.extension.iastate.edu/publications/pm746.pdf

 

Natural Standard Professional Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com).

 

www.livingnaturally.com

 

The American cancer society   www.cancer.org/treatment

 

Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Daniel E Brooks, MD  Co-Medical Director, Banner Good Samaritan Poison and Drug Information Center, Department of Medical Toxicology, Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:
 
 

PART 4 OF POISONOUS PLANTS THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES

 Here is a list of POISONOUS PLANTS throughout the

UNITED STATES for those open minded people who

do not really believe that all herbs are for human or

even animal consumption, and can comprehend the

fact that many herbs are poisonous.

 

I'm not going to go into the description of these plants,

you can usually get a good colored picture with

descriptions from other books and online.  However,

many books and often online information  do not even

state if the plant is poisonous or not.  So, I'm

going to go through as many plants that I can find and

think of and just give the common names of the plants,

the Latin names, other plants that may be related,

where they are most apt to grow and the dangerous

part of the plant and symptoms of poisoning.  

 

 YOU MAY EMAIL ME FOR A PDF FORMAT AND I WILL GLADLY SEND IT TO YOU.

 THIS IS PART 4

 

 

 MONKSHOOD/  ACONITE/  WOLFSBANE (Aconitum napellus L)

 

MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING   naturally in the north temperate zones of   Britain, Europe, Asia and North America, usually preferring shady, moist places and is cultivated for the attractive flowers.

 

DANGER careless people have mistaken the tuberous “roots” for horseradish or celery and the leaves for parsley. Very toxic

There is no antidote. One mg. can kill a horse. It can be absorbed through the skin.

 

 SYMPTOMS: first symptoms, showing within a few minutes, include tingling of the   mouth, stomach and skin, restlessness, followed by slow pulse, incoordination and muscular weakness.

vomiting, diarrheas, convulsions and death by respiratory or cardiac failure may follow in up to eight hours.  Typically, the brain remains unaffected till the end. 

 

 CAUTION:   considered very dangerous!    Be very wary of anyone who claims to be knowledable of herbs and uses monkshood,  aconite or wolfsbane

 

 

 MORNING GLORY  (Ipomoea purpurea Lam) 

 

MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING commonly cultivated throughout North America, Europe and Britain.

 

 DANGER    the seeds, which are often self administered, is d-lysergic acid amide, a  well

know hallucinogen. It has been held responsible for deaths linked to continuing

psychological disturbances over a period of days or weeks. Its effects are unpredictable and last for a number of hours.

 

 CAUTION  can cause permanent damage to the mind.

 

 

 NIGHT  BLOOMING JESSAMINE  (Cestrum nocturnum L) other related plants:  C.diurnum L (day blooming jessamin) cultivated in southern US. Its flowers are day- scented and

white and it is considered toxic.  C.parqui L'Her (willow leaved or green jessamine) is found wild in the southern US , also considered toxic.

 

 MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING in gardens in southern US.

 

 DANGER: probable cause is an alkaloid, perhaps atropine

 

 SYMPTOMS: the symptoms of poisoning include nervous and muscular excitement,  hallucinations, tachycardia    (abnormal rapidity of heart-beat), salivation, breathing difficulties and paralysis

 

 

 OLEANDER  (Nerium Oleander) of the Dogbane Family Apocynaceae. A/K/A  oleander,

dogbane, laurier rose, rosebay, Anvirzel, Xenavex .   Oleander is the official flower of the city of Hiroshima, having been the first to bloom following the atomic bombing of the city in 1945.  

 It is most commonly known as oleander, from its superficial resemblance to the unrelated olive

Olea. Oleander is one of the most poisonous of commonly grown garden plants

 

Oleander is a poisonous evergreen shrub or small tree identified by its fragrant white, red, pink, or purple flowers and long slender, leathery leaves, which grow in pairs opposite each other. Oleander is a very beautiful tree.

 

 MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING:   On the East Coast of the US,it can be planted as far north as Virginia Beach, Virginia, while in California and Texas it is naturalized

as a median strip planting. The white, pink and magenta flowers appear where little else is in bloom.

These tough-as-nails plants thrive along our freeways up and down the southern and hot climate

states. It is commonly used in landscaping freeway medians in California, Texas and other mild-

winter states in the Continental United States because it is upright in habit and easily maintained. Its toxicity renders it deer-resistant. It is tolerant of poor soils and drought

 

 DANGERS:  Oleander poisoning occurs when someone sucks nectar from the flowers or chews leaves from the oleander or yellow oleander plant. Poisoning can also happen  if you eat honey

made by bees that used the oleander plant for nectar.   Oleanders  are laced with bitter sap that contains Cardenolide Glycosides, which act upon the heart much like foxglove or Digitalis.

 

 Oleander is very difficult to eradicate once it is large and established. Burning any part of oleander creates toxic smoke.

 

 There have been numerous reports of poisoning and death from ingestion of oleander, oleander leaf tea, and its extracts. It has killed adults, children, pets, and livestock.

 

Even a small amount of oleander can cause death due to its effects on the heart. Since such tiny amounts can cause death.

Oleander supplements and extracts from any part of the oleander plant should not be used .   Even though oleander is poisonous, heavily  diluted oleander preparations have been promoted to treat a

variety of conditions including muscle cramps, asthma,  menstrual pain, epilepsy, paralysis, skin

diseases, heart problems, and cancer. It has also been used in folk remedies as an insecticide and to kill rats.

 

 The oleander leaf is on the Commission E (Germany's regulatory agency for herbs) list of unapproved herbs. This means that it is not recommended for use because it has not been proven to be safe or effective. The plant parts are toxic, whether cooked, raw, or made into tea.

 

The oleander plant is poisonous, and many people have died of heart failure or respiratory paralysis after eating parts of the plant or drinking tea made from it.

 

SYMPTOMS and signs of oleander toxicity are nausea, vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness, high potassium levels, dilated pupils, bloody diarrhea, seizures, loss of consciousness, slow or irregular

pulse, and heart block -- a blockage of the electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to contract.

There have been reports of death occurring after oral and/or rectal administration of the extract from the plant.

 

 

  From the book  DANGEROUS PLANTS  BY  JOHN  TAMPION

 

101 Medicinal Herbs  by Steven Foster

 

The Honest Herbal by Varro E Tyler

 

Dr. James Duke, formerly chief of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Medicinal Plant Resources Laboratory

 

The 'PDR for Herbal Medicines'  

 

http://www.extension.iastate.edu/publications/pm746.pdf  

 

Natural Standard Professional Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com).  

 

www.livingnaturally.com

 

The American cancer society   www.cancer.org/treatment Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Daniel E Brooks, MD  Co-Medical Director, Banner Good Samaritan Poison and Drug Information Center, Department of Medical Toxicology, Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

PART 3 OF POISONOUS PLANTS THROUGH OUT THE UNITED STATES

Here is a list of POISONOUS PLANTS throughout the UNITED STATES for those open minded people who do not really believe that all herbs are for human or even animal consumption, and can comprehend the fact that many herbs are poisonous.

 I'm not going to go into the description of these plants, you can usually get a good colored picture with descriptions from other books and online.  However, many books and often online information  do not even state if the plant is poisonous or not.  So, I'm going to go through as many plants that I can find and think of and just give the common names of the plants, the Latin names, other plants that may be related, where they are most apt to grow and the dangerous part of the plant and symptoms of poisoning.  

 

YOU MAY EMAIL ME FOR A PDF FORMAT AND I WILL GLADLY SEND IT TO YOU.

THIS IS PART  3

HENBANE/  BLACK HENBANE   (HYOSCYAMUS NIGER L)   other related plants: some eight species are recognized in the genus .  The family contains may other poisonous genre.

 

 MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING dryish,

disturbed soils such as roadsides and waste places. 

Native  to Britain and Europe, Canada and the US. 

 

 DANGER   This is of the nightshade family.  The

alkaloids found in the seeds and juices are deadly

poisonous.  A fact that even the ancient Egyptians

knew.

 

 SYMPTOMS:  Delirium, visual disturbance, rapid

weak heartbeat, convulsions, coma, death. 

 CAUTIONS:  This is still being used as a medicinal

herb. Considered very dangerous!    Be very wary of

anyone who claims to be knowledable of herbs and

uses Henbane or Black Henbane

 

 

JAPANESE WISTERIA  (Wisteria floribunda DC) 

other related plants:  W. Sinensis (Chinese wisteria)

with blue/violet flowers is all considered toxic, as well

as the other seven species in the genus.

 

 MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING  throughout North America, Europe and Britain.

 

 DANGER:  Children have been poisoned by eating pods and seeds.

 SYPMPTOMS  those of gastroenteritis, with

abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea.  In severe

cases serous dehydration occurred.  Easting only a

few seeds can produce poisoning.

 

 

 JIMSONWEED   DATURA SPP   A/K/A   DOWNY

THORNAPPLE, DEVIL'S TRUMPET, AND ANGEL'S

TRUMPET)

 

 MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING:  

Jimsonweed is a cosmopolitan weed of worldwide

distribution. It is found in most of the continental US

from New England to Texas, Florida to the far western

states. Jimsonweed is found in most southern

Canadian Provinces as well. It grows in cultivated fields

being a major weed in soybeans worldwide.

Jimsonweed is common on overgrazed pastures,

barnyards, and waste land preferring rich soils.

 

 DANGERS:  All parts of Jimsonweed are poisonous.

Leaves and seeds are the usual source of poisoning,

but are rarely eaten do to its strong odor and

unpleasant taste. Poisoning is more common in

humans than in animals. Children can be attracted by

flowers and consume Jimsonweed accidentally. In

small quantities, Jimsonweed can have medicinal or

hallucinogenic properties.   Poisoning can occur when

hungry animals are on sparse pasture with

Jimsonweed infestation. Most  animal poisoning results

from feed contamination. Jimsonweed can be

harvested with hay or silage, and subsequently

poisoning occurs upon feeding the forage. Seeds can

contaminate grains and is the most common poisoning

which occurs in chickens.

 

 SYMPTOMS: rapid pulse, restlessness, polydipsia ,

depression,  rapid breathing , Nervousness,   retained

urine,   coma, convulsions

 

 

LANTANA  (Lantana camara L)  other related plants: 

L.aculeata L., L. Sellowiana Link & Otto and L.

Ovatifolia Britton are described as equally toxic and all

species of    LANTANA should be considered

potentially dangerous.

 

 MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING in southern US, Canada, Europe and Britain

 

 DANGER: berries instrumental in poisoning and deaths

 

 SYMPTOMS:  gastrointestinal irritation with abdominal

pain, diarrhea, weakness, failure of the blood

circulation and death in serious cases.

 

 

 

LARKSPUR/Delphinm (Delphinium species) 

 

MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING all over the northern hemisphere including North America. 

 

 DANGER  the whole plant may contain various

complex alkaloids.  The seeds are considered to

be highly toxic.

 

 SYMPTOMS  The alkaloids act on the nervous

system causing general weakness and eventual

respiratory paralysis, constipation, nausea and

abdominal pain. Vomit may enter the lungs, due to

general weakness and cause respiratory difficulties.

 

 

 

 LILY OF THE VALLEY  (Convallaria majalis L) 

 

 MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING in shady

places in gardens throughout the UK, Europe and

North America.

 

 DANGER  and SYMPTOMS:  the plants throughout

contain cardiac glycosides called convallarin and

convallamarin. Taken in small amounts the symptoms

are abdominal pain and purging with a slowing and

strengthening of the heartbeat. With larger amounts,

greater nervous involvement giving mental disturbance,

convulsions and perhaps death could occur.

 

 

 

 LOBELIA (LOBELIA INFLATA), also called Indian

tobacco ,"puke weed, gagroot, asthma weed,

vomitwort, rapuntium inflatum, bladderpod

 

 MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING:  It is found

in the southeastern part of Canada from Nova Scotia to

Southeast Ontario and British Columbia. It is also

present in the eastern half of the United States

(excluding the state of Florida).

 

The main parts used of the Lobelia plant are the

flowering parts and the seeds. The seeds are the most

potent because they contain lobeline, a piperidine alkaloid.

 

 Dangers:  Lobelia is a potentially toxic herb

Lobelia is considered to be a toxic herb because of its

lobeline affiliation.  This herb is toxic at low doses and

in some countries the sale of Lobelia is limited. In the

past Lobeline was used in anti-smoking products as a

deterrent for those with a smoking addiction. However,

the sale of smoking products that contained lobeline

was prohibited by the Food and Drug Administration in

1993 because it was not helpful to those who were

addicted to smoking. Lobelia also contains various

alkaloids other than lobeline which include lobelacrin, a

bitter glycoside, lobelianin, a pungent oil and resin,

acid, fats and gum. It also has 14 pyridine alkaloids

 

 SYMPTOMS:  include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,

cough, dizziness, tremors, and more serious effects,

profuse sweating, convulsions, fast heartbeat, very low

blood pressure, collapse, coma, and possibly death

 

 If you have been diagnosed with heart disease,

tobacco sensitivity, seizure disorder, paralysis,

shortness of breath, high blood pressure, or are

recovering from shock, you should not take this herb. It

is also not recommended for women that are pregnant

or breastfeeding.

 

 People with high blood pressure, heart disease, liver

disease, kidney disease, tobacco sensitivity, paralysis,

seizure disorder, and shortness of breath, and those

recovering from shock should not take lobelia.

 

 Lobelia can irritate the GI tract. Lobelia may make

symptoms worse for people with ulcers, Chron's

disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or intestinal

infections.

 

 CAUTION:   BE VERY WARY OF ANY HERBALIST

WHO  GROWS AND SELLS THIS HERB.  They are

not knowledable  enough  to differentiate between safe

and unsafe herbs.

 

 

From the book  DANGEROUS PLANTS  BY  JOHN  TAMPION

 101 Medicinal Herbs  by Steven Foster

The Honest Herbal by Varro E Tyler

Dr. James Duke, formerly chief of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Medicinal Plant Resources Laboratory The 'PDR for Herbal Medicines'  http://www.extension.iastate.edu/publications/pm746.pdf 

 Natural Standard Professional Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com). www.livingnaturally.com

The American cancer society   www.cancer.org/treatment

Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Daniel E Brooks, MD  Co-Medical Director, Banner Good Samaritan Poison and Drug Information Center, Department of Medical

Toxicology, Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 101 Medicinal Herbs  by Steven Foster

 The Honest Herbal by Varro E Tyler

Dr. James Duke, formerly chief of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Medicinal Plant Resources Laboratory

 The 'PDR for Herbal Medicines'

 http://www.extension.iastate.edu/publications/pm746.pdf

 Natural Standard Professional Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com).

 www.livingnaturally.com

 The American cancer society   www.cancer.org/treatment

 Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Daniel E Brooks, MD  Co-Medical Director, Banner Good Samaritan Poison and Drug Information Center, Department of Medical Toxicology, Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:
 
 

PART 2 OF POISONOUS PLANTS THROUGHTOUT THE UNITED STATES

Here is PART 2 of  a list of POISONOUS PLANTS throughout the UNITED STATES for those open minded people who do not really believe that all herbs are for human or even animal consumption, and can comprehend the fact that many herbs are poisonous.

 

I'm not going to go into the description of these plants, you can usually get a good colored picture with descriptions from other books and online.  However, many books and often online information  do not even state if the plant is poisonous or not.  So, I'm going to go through as many plants that I can find and think of and just give the common names of the plants, the Latin names, other plants that may be related, where they are most apt to grow and the dangerous part of the plant and symptoms of poisoning.  

 

YOU MAY EMAIL ME FOR A PDF FORMAT AND I WILL GLADLY SEND IT TO YOU.

 

THIS IS PART 2

 

DEADLY NIGHTSHADE   ATROPA BELLADONNA OR ATROPA BELLA-DONNA  A/K/A  Belladonna.      The name Atropa belladonna is in the nightshade family (Solanaceae), which it shares with potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, jimsonweed, tobacco, wolfberry, and chili peppers. The common names for this species include belladonna, deadly nightshade, divale, dwale,  banewort, devil's berries, naughty man's cherries, death cherries, beautiful death, devil's herb, great morel, and dwayberry.

 

MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING:  It is naturalized in parts of North America, where it is often found in shady, moist locations with limestone-rich soils

 

DANGER:    The foliage and berries are extremely toxic, Contains alkaloids hyoscyamine, atropine, and hyoscine. Properties are sedative, narcotic, and act on the central nervous system. Small doses stimulate and large doses paralyze. Belladonna poisoning manifests within 15 minutes of ingestion. Belladonna is one of the most toxic plants found in the Eastern Hemisphere.  All parts of the plant contain tropane alkaloids.  The berries pose the greatest danger to children because they look attractive and can be mistaken for blueberries and have a somewhat sweet taste.  The consumption of two to five berries by a human adult is probably lethal. The root of the plant is generally the most toxic part, though this can vary from one specimen to another.  Ingestion of a single leaf of the plant can be fatal to an adult. The plant's deadly symptoms are caused by atropine's disruption of the parasympathetic nervous system's ability to regulate involuntary activities, such as sweating, breathing, and heart rate. The antidote for belladonna poisoning is physostigmine or pilocarpine, the same as for atropine.

 

The SYMPTOMS of belladonna poisoning include dilated pupils, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, tachycardia, loss of balance, staggering, headache, rash, flushing, severely dry mouth and throat, slurred speech, urinary retention, constipation, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, and convulsions

.

 

 

  DEATH CAMAS (ZIGADENUS VENENOSUS/ZIGADENUE GRAMINEUS RYDB.) MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING    Death camas occurs in some parts of western North America and can be easily confused with edible onions of genus Allium. They tend to grow in dry meadows and on dry hillsides as well as sagebrush slopes and mountain forests. The bulbs of Death Camas are oval and look like onions but does not smell like onions

DANGER     All parts of this plant with lovely flowers called the Death Camas are poisonous. It is dangerous for humans as well as livestock, though some poisoned by it have been treated.

 

 

  FOXGLOVE  DIGITALIS PURPUREA (SCROPHULARIACEAE)

 

MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING: Foxgloves are commonly cultivated as ornamentals in North America.  Also  in North America in open lands, roadsides and waste areas. Often abundant in clearings and after burning in light dry soils.

DANGER:  Foxglove has caused serious poisonings, and anti-digoxin Fab fragments are not particularly effective in treating foxglove poisoning. Most cases of toxicity have been caused by wild-food gatherers mistaking the plant for comfrey. Poisoning can result from eating any part of the plant or any material or drug derived from it. It contains about a dozen different cardiac glycosides

 

 SYMPTOMS of digitalis poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, stomachache, headache, bradycardia, atrioventricular heart block,irregular heartbeat and pulse, tremors, confusion, and visual disturbances, convulsions, and death

 

 

 

 

 

GOLDEN DEWDROP  (Duranta repens L)   MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING  in the open in southern Florida and sometimes cultivated elsewhere in green houses. Native to West Indies, South America and Key West.

 

DANGER and SYMPTOMS   the fruit contain a saponin-type poison which induces sleepiness, fever and convulsions.

 

 

 

Hemlock poisoning may refer to poisoning by either POISON HEMLOCK (CONIUM MACULATUM) OR WATER HEMLOCK FAMILY (CICUTA SPECIES AND OENANTHE CROCATA L.) Although related, poison hemlock and water hemlock toxicity have different pathophysiologies and clinical presentations. The root contains the greatest concentration of toxin in both species, although all plant parts are toxic

 

Poison hemlock, an exotic species introduced to the United States, is a ubiquitous plant with fernlike properties that may reach a height of 2 meters. Poison hemlock grows in diverse settings, including wooded areas, ditches, and waysides throughout the United States, and may be mistaken for other plants such as fool's parsley

 

Water hemlock is typically found growing in moist habitats, such as drainage ditches, marshes, and near bodies of fresh water.

 

Poison hemlock contains several piperidine alkaloid toxins (namely coniine) that are structurally similar to nicotine.

 

Water hemlock contains cicutoxin, a potent, noncompetitive gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor antagonist

 

SYMPTOMS FOR :  POISON HEMLOCK may include the following: Nausea and vomiting,   abdominal pain,  tachycardia,  tremor,   seizures (much more common with water hemlock) ,   bradycardia (late),   ascending paralysis (late), Coma,  respiratory failure

 

SYMPTOMS FOR WATER HEMLOCK:  Nausea and vomiting,  excessive salivation,   abdominal pain,  tachy/bradycardia,    hypotension/hypertension,   cardiac dysrhythmias/failure/arrest, delirium,  convulsions, opisthotonus, hemiballismus,  seizure (status epilepticus)

 

From the book  DANGEROUS PLANTS  BY  JOHN  TAMPION

 101 Medicinal Herbs  by Steven Foster

The Honest Herbal by Varro E Tyler

Dr. James Duke, formerly chief of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Medicinal Plant Resources Laboratory

The 'PDR for Herbal Medicines'

Natural Standard Professional Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com).

www.livingnaturally.com

Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Daniel E Brooks, MD  Co-Medical Director, Banner Good Samaritan Poison and Drug Information Center, Department of Medical Toxicology, Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

Here is a list of POISONOUS PLANTS throughout the UNITED STATES

Here is a list of POISONOUS PLANTS throughout the UNITED STATES for those open minded people who do not really believe that all herbs are for human or even animal consumption, and can comprehend the fact that many herbs are poisonous.

 

I'm not going to go into the description of these plants, you can usually get a good colored picture with descriptions from other books and online.  However, many books and often online information  do not even state if the plant is poisonous or not.  So, I'm going to go through as many plants that I can find and think of and just give the common names of the plants, the Latin names, other plants that may be related, where they are most apt to grow and the dangerous part of the plant and symptoms of poisoning.  

 

 

YOU MAY EMAIL ME FOR A PDF FORMAT AND I WILL GLADLY SEND IT TO YOU.

 

THIS IS PART 1

 

 

AMERICAN HELLEBORE (VERATRUM VIRIDE) (BLACK AND GREEN): American false hellebore, American white hellebore.   Both American hellebore and European white hellebore contain jervine alkaloids, the constituents responsible for the plants' toxic cardiovascular effects (According to some references, the term "Hellebore" refers to a genus unrelated to, but commonly confused with, the genus Veratrum. Various species of the genus Veratrum are known as false hellebore or American hellebore, and white hellebore, but they are unrelated plants of the family Liliaceae and/or subfamily Melanthiaceae. The plant "hellebore" (not the genus) can refer to either genus Helleborus or Veratrum)

 

USED FOR:  The root and rhizome of American hellebore has been used historically for fever, pain, and high blood pressure, with a decoction (boiled in water) of the root being used for chronic coughs and constipation. Historically, the whole plant was not routinely used medicinally, only the root and rhizome.

 

MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING a perennial plant native to the swampy areas and moist meadows of the eastern and western United States

 

DANGER :  Although American hellebore was formerly used as a tea or tincture, potentially toxic and irritating constituents preclude its modern day use by ingestion.

 

The toxic effects associated with American hellebore limit its ability to be used as an agent to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), related kidney/heart diseases, and hypertension associated with pre-eclampsia in pregnancy.

 

Currently, there is a lack of scientific information regarding the safety or effectiveness of American hellebore as a whole plant, or homeopathically

 

SYMPTOMS    Internally violently narcotic. Symptoms of hellbore poisoning include salivation, nausea, vomiting, colic, diarrhea, weak heartbeat, vertigo, ringing ears, disturbed vision, coronary arrest. Green hellebore is a cardiac depressant...black hellbore is a cardiac stimulant. Applied locally, the fresh root is an irritant.

 

 

 

 

 

AMERICAN POKEWEED (PHYTOLACCA AMERICANA) American Pokeweed is also known as American nightshade, cancer jalap, oakum, garget, inkberry, pigeon berry, pecan bush, poke root, pokeweed, redweed, scoke, red ink plant and chui xu shang lu, parts of this plant are highly toxic to livestock and humans.. The fruits of American Pokeweed look edible too like the Jerusalem cherry that's why Pokeweed poisonings are common. Although the fruits are toxic to humans, they're not to birds. The toxic components of the plant are saponins. Deaths are currently uncommon, although there are cases of emesis and catharsis, but at least one death of a child who consumed crushed seeds in a juice has occurred.

 

 

 

 

 

AUTUMN CROCUS/ MEADOW SAFFRON  ( Colchicum autumnale L) 

 

MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING  in damp woods and meadows on non acid soils. Native to Europe and Great Britain and cultivated in US

 

DANGER  All parts of the plant are poisonous due to alkaloids such as colchicine.

 

SYMPTOMS  gastrointestinal irritation with abdominal pain diarrhea.  Muscular weakness, breathing difficulties and occasionally coma, convulsions and respiratory failure may occur.  The toxins can pass in the milk of animals that have eaten Colchicum and can accumulate during slow ingestion to reach a toxic level.

 

 

 

 

BLACK LOCUST/ ACACIA   (ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA L)    twenty species are described from North America. MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING native to eastern and central US and extending into south Canada.  Sometimes grown for timber.

 

DANGER  Children have been poisoned by the seeds and all parts of the plant.  Poison is due to the presence of a toxin called “robin” and a glycoside “robitin”> SYMPTOMS  vomiting, diarrheas, weakness, dilated pupils, weak irregular pulse and breathing difficulties

 

 

 

 

 

BLUE COHOSH: CAULOPHYLLUM THALICTROIDES (L.) MICHX. A/K/A  Squaw-root, Papoose-root, Caulophylle faux-pigamon yellow ginseng and blue ginseng Berberidaceae (Barberry Family)

 

MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN  GROWING:   found in hardwood forest of the eastern United States, and favors moist coves and hillsides, generally in shady locations, in rich soil. It grows in eastern North America, from Manitoba and Oklahoma east to the Atlantic Ocean

 

DANGER:  Toxic to the heart muscle and may harm intestines. Seeds are poisonous. Powder is strongly irritating to mucous membranes. Some of the compounds found in blue cohosh, such as caulophyllosaponin, methylcytosine, and caulosaponin, appear to constrict coronary vessels, limiting blood flow to the heart and reducing its ability to pump. One published case report documents profound heart failure in a child born to a mother who used blue cohosh to induce labor     may cause; 1) perinatal stroke, 2) acute myocardial infarction, profound congestive heart failure and shock and 3) severe multi-organ hypoxic injury.

 

POISONOUS PART:     Raw seeds, roots

 

SYMPTOMS:  Vomiting and diarrhea .   Eating the raw seeds or roots can cause poisoning symptoms and skin contact can also result in skin irritation. The roasted seeds are sometimes used as a safe coffee substitute. The toxic compounds in the plant are alkaloids and saponins. The plant is considered to have a relatively low level of toxicity.

 

 

 

Scotch BROOM (Cytisus scoparius), Bannal, basam, Besenginaterkraut, besom, bissom, bream, broom, broom tops, broomtops, browme, brum, common broom, Cystisi scoparii flos, Cystisus scoparius, Cytsus scoprfus, English broom, European broom.  Also referred to as broom. Not to be confused with Spanish broom (Spartium junceum), which has been associated with severe toxicity, or Butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus).

 

MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING:   Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius), also referred to as broom, is a perennial woody plant native to Europe. The species was introduced as a garden ornamental to North America and now is common across western Canada and California. Scotch broom plants grow up to 10 feet tall  and spreads quickly and aggressively at the expense of other plants and trees and is often considered a pest.

 

DANGERS:  There is particular concern about the potential toxicity of scotch broom due to the presence of small amounts of the toxic alkaloids sparteine and isosparteine, which are found in both the flowers and herb (above-ground parts). Sparteine has known effects on the electrical conductivity of heart muscle and can potentially cause dangerous heart rhythms or interact with cardiac drugs. Sparteine is also known to cause uterine contractions and should be avoided during pregnancy. Life-threatening adverse effects have been associated with sparteine. Toxicity symptoms similar to nicotine poisoning: circulatory collapse, irregular heart beat, nausea, diarrhea, vertigo, headache, paralysis of respiratory and motor centers, convulsions, death.

 

SYMPTOMS: symptoms including dizziness, headache, weakness, fatigue, sleepiness, blurry vision, sweating, nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal distress, diarrhea and confusion. When smoked in cigarette form; headache, confusion, relaxation, and euphoria may occur. Driving or operating heavy machinery should be avoided. Smoking cigarettes containing scotch broom carries a risk of inhalation of fungal contaminants (aspergillus), with a possibility of resulting fungal pneumonia..   Topical (skin) use may cause irritation due to the presence of saponins.  Pregnancy and Breastfeeding:     Scotch broom should be avoided during pregnancy. Scotch broom contains the alkaloid sparteine, which is known to cause uterine contractions, and carries a risk of inducing abortion (abortifacient properties).  Scotch broom should be avoided during breastfeeding due to insufficient evidence and a hypothetical risk of serious toxicity.

 

 

 

 

CHINABERRY TREE /WHITE CEDAR   (Melia azedarach  L)  other related plants: M.azedarach var umbraculiformis, a horticultural form, is known as the Texas umbrella tree.

 

MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING   frequently planted in the southern US as an ornamental. Originally native to south west Asia. DANGER    children have died from eating the berries and adults have died from making a brew out of the leaves. A resinous poison is in the fruit pulp, but amount may vary with the strain and growing conditions. 

 

SYMPTOMS   the irritant  activity of the plant is shown by vomiting and constipation or diarrheas . Difficulty in breathing, weakening heart activity and nervous depression or excitement and paralysis may develop. Symptoms may occur up to several hours and death may take place within a few days.

 

CAUTION:    should be considered highly dangerous. Be very wary of anyone who claims to be knowledgeable  of herbs and  uses Chinaberry or white cedar.

 

 

 

COLTSFOOT    TUSSILAGO FARFARA L. (ASTERACEAE) a/k/a  Ass's Foot, Bullsfoot , Hallfoot, Horsehoof ,Huki-Tanpopo, K'Uan Tung, Oksurukotu, Son-before-father, To Wu, and Tusilago

 

MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING :  in the eastern United States from Minnesota south to Tennessee, east to North Carolina, and north to Maine . It occurs throughout southern Ontario, southern Quebec, and the Canadian Maritime provinces. It is also found in southwestern British Columbia and Vancouver Island and occasionally west of the Cascade Range in the Pacific Northwest Coltsfoot: Is used for coughs but contains alkaloids that cause liver cancer.

 

DANGERS AND SAFETY ISSUES:   Recent research shows anti-inflammatory activity, however, studies show that the use of coltsfoot as an herbal remedy has adverse effects, such as liver damage Despite evidence that coltsfoot does generally work, it is not without its problems. The leaves, and to a greater degree the buds and flowers, contain compounds called pyrrolizidine alkaloids. These compounds are known to damage the liver. They can cause liver cancer with extended exposure and may also cause the blood vessels of the liver to narrow dangerously. may cause serious liver disease if consumed over long periods of time  ( could be months) The pyrrolizidine alkaloids found in coltsfoot are known to have potential liver-toxic and cancer-promoting effects

 

 

 

 

 

COMMON PRIVET  (LIGUSTRUM VULGARE L)   other related plants:  L.lucidum Ait. (glossy privet)   and  L. Japonicum Thunb. And other species are also considered to have toxic berries.

 

MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING extensively cultivated in Europe and North America as a hedge plant. This plant is  Native to Britain and Europe, often preferring calcareous soils.

 

DANGER    children have been poisoned by the attractive berries.

 

SYMPTOMS:  gastric irritation with vomiting and purging, followed in severe cases by death.  The active ingredient is the glycoside ligustrin

 

 

 

 

 

 

DAFFODIL  (NARCISSUS PSEUDO-NARCISSUS L)  other related plants:  all members of the genus Narcissus {about 30 species in all} are considered dangerous.  Many other commonly cultivated genera in this family, such as Galanthus, Amaryllis, Crinum, Nerine and Haemanthus are also said to contain toxic alkaloids.

 

MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING  in Europe, Britain and north America.

 

DANGERS  Eating the bulbs by mistake for edible bulbs produces severe gastroenteritis with vomiting and purging. Trembling and convulsions may occur.

 

From the book  DANGEROUS PLANTS  BY  JOHN  TAMPION

 

101 Medicinal Herbs  by Steven Foster

 

The Honest Herbal by Varro E Tyler

 

Dr. James Duke, formerly chief of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Medicinal Plant Resources Laboratory

 

The 'PDR for Herbal Medicines'

 

Natural Standard Professional Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com).

 

www.livingnaturally.com

 

Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Daniel E Brooks, MD  Co-Medical Director, Banner Good Samaritan Poison and Drug Information Center, Department of Medical Toxicology, Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center

 

 

 

 

 
 

Herbalist should sell top quaility herbs

 

Did you read about Herbal-Supplement Scam: Tests Reveal Fake and Dangerous Ingredients According to YAHOO SHINE  OF NOV 4, 2013?  ”Findings of a recent study, using DNA analysis, suggest that many plant-based remedies on the market today may be made of cheap fillers, such as soy, rice, and wheat, or contain weeds or potentially harmful contaminants.”     Many of the herbal capsules that people purchased in drug stores and online are “contaminated with plant species not listed on the ingredients list, including some that were considered toxic or allergy producing, as well as other potentially hazardous substances”.  In  a 2010 study A lot of  the vitamins, etc.   tested positive for hazardous substances such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, and pesticides. 

 

Speaking of which, I used to have a booth at the farmers market next to a man about 10 years older than myself.  He told  me that he adds arsenic to his fertilizer when planting his produce.  This  man was not an uneducated person by any means.   His real job was working at a newspaper company as the lead graphic artist.     

 

 People love  to complain about the FDA sticking its’ nose into food and farming operations.  But if you are observant, you’ll be able to see why.  Not everyone has the same sanitation and safety codes when they grow and harvest their produce, herbs, animals, what have you.  It can be years before the FDA receives enough complaints to take action. And adverse reactions are shockingly underreported.   

 

According to this article, you can also look for a "USP Verified" label, which means the manufacturer has voluntarily asked the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, a nonprofit organization that sets industry standards for medicines, food ingredients, and dietary supplements, to test the quality of its product.

 

When it comes to botanicals, quality control is difficult and all the more reason to sell them in the most natural state possible.   

 

I’m seeing some people selling their herbs in vegi capsules and really wonder why anyone would purchase herbs this way from an herbalist.   It seems to me that there is too much handling of the herb involved. Where do these people get the vegi capsules from in the first place?  Are they making them, themselves?  Then, how do these people fill these capsules?  Are they wearing gloves? Hair nets? What about their equipment?  And  can they offer a USP Verified label?    At least for the most part, companies who make and sell the herb and vitamin supplements have to follow sanitation codes, thanks to the FDA.  However, an herbalist working out of their home, doesn’t.   This is something to really think on.   Herbalist should be way above companies that are selling their vitamins and herbs in unsanitary conditions and using fillers in their products.   People rely on us to provide the best and that’s what we should be doing.

 

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HOLIDAY PLANTS THAT ARE UNSAFE AROUND EITHER ANIMALS OR HUMANS

 

 

 

MISTLETOE  phoradendron spp.  of THE MISTLETOE FAMILY    (Phoradendron serotinum and Viscum album)

 

There are 2 plants with the common name “mistletoe” the American mistletoe (P. serotinum has a relatively lower toxicity compared to Viscum spp) and European mistletoe (V. album). Mistletoe is a parasitic perennial with white or translucent berries that can be quite sticky. They grow on the trunks and branches of deciduous trees. P. serotinum is widespread in the U.S., hence the American mistletoe moniker. V. album, endemic to much of Europe, can occasionally now be found in the U.S., mainly in California. These plants are common adornments and holiday symbols most commonly sold around Christmas time. All sections of P. serotinum are potentially harmful as they contain phoratoxin, a toxalbumin. Most ingestions result in little physical reaction, although some patients may experience gastrointestinal symptoms. The entire Viscum spp. plant is toxic. After a latent period of several hours, clinical effects from viscotoxins can develop. Bradycardia, delirium, as well as toxicity of the liver, central neverous system, kidney, and adrenals can also occur. Steeping the plant in hot water (“herbal tea”) may result in large amounts of ingested toxin    Mistletoe is well known for causing intestinal upset, as well as a sudden and severe drop in blood pressure, breathing problems, and even hallucinations. If a large enough amount of these plants are ingested, seizures and death may follow.

 

 Since mistletoe is much used for Christmas decorations, it should be kept out of the reach of young children.   SYMPTOMS:   eating the berries will cause acute stomach and intestinal pains, diarrhea, weak pulse, mental disturbances, and the collapse of blood vessels. Death has occurred within 10 hours after ingestion.

 

The leaves and berries of holly and mistletoe plants, even the dried plants, should be kept well out of your pet's reach

 

Mistletoe can cause significant vomiting and diarrhea, difficulty breathing, collapse, erratic behavior, hallucinations and death when ingested by pets

 

 

 

POINSETTIA   (Poinsettia pulcherrima R. Grah)  other related plants ornamentals such as E. Marginata (snow on the mountain), E. Cyparissias (Cypress spurge), E. Milli Ch. Des Moulins (crown of thorns cactus), E. Lactea Haw. (Candelabra cactus) and  E. Tirucalli L. (pencil, Malabar or spurge trees) also contain irritant juice and are potentially dangerous.

 

 MOST LIKELY TO BE SEEN GROWING  as a houseplant or in greenhouses throughout the temperate zone, frequently used for winter decoration because of its showy red bracts. This flowering plant, indigenous to Mexico and Central America, has large green and red leaves. 

 

 DANGER   young children have ready access to this house plant. The leaf is what appears to be poisonous

 

 SYMPTOMS  prior to death the symptoms were vomiting and purgation of the bowels accompanied by delirium. The milky sap is capable of producing blistering of the skin and Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima)

 

Poinsettias can cause irritation to the mouth and stomach and sometimes vomiting in pets.

 

 Poinsettia Plant Basics

 

 A lot of people have been led to believe that the poinsettia plant is deadly for pets and children, but this is actually an unlikely occurrence. The poinsettia plant’s brightly colored leaves contain a sap that is irritating to the tissues of the mouth and esophagus. If the leaves are ingested, they will often cause nausea and vomiting, but it would take a large amount of the plant’s material to cause poisoning, and most animals and children will not eat such a large enough amount because of the irritating taste and feel from the sap.

 

 However, if the plant has been treated with a pesticide, your pet or child could be at risk of becoming ill from ingesting the pesticide. The size of your pet and the amount of ingested plant material will be the determining factors for the severity of the poisoning. Young animals -- puppies and kittens -- are at the highest risk. Severe reactions to the plant or to the pesticide it has been treated with include seizures, coma, and in some cases, death.

 

 Maybe YOU did not spray your plants with anything, however, where you purchased them, whether at the nursery, Home Depot, Wal-Mart , etc, they may have sprayed the plants when the plants came in.  Even if THEY did not spray the plants, it is a sure bet that where your plants originate from did get sprayed with herbicides and pesticides.  Otherwise,  the grower risks losing his/her entire crop.  Something to think about.

 

Lilies and Daffodils

 

Lilies (Lilium, all spp.): Ingesting any part of the plant can cause complete kidney failure in 36-72 hours. First symptoms appear in a few hours and may include appetite suppression, lethargy, vomiting.  Cats are especially sensitive to lily poisoning, so be very careful to keep your cats away from lilies of any kind, including the Amaryllis, Easter lilies, and Stargazer lilies so often found in homes around the holidays.

 

 Both popular gift items at this time of year, plants in the lily and daffodil can be toxic to pets. In cats, Lilium and Hemerocallis genera lilies are the most dangerous. Eating even a small amount of the plant will have a severe impact on a cat's system, causing severe symptoms such as gastrointestinal issues, arrhythmia, and convulsions. Daffodils are also toxic to both dogs and cats, especially the bulbs.

 

 

 

.Holly and mistletoe are also popular holiday plants. These plants, along with their berries, have a greater toxicity level than the poinsettia

 

Holly (Ilex aquifolium and opaca)

 

There are 2 commonly distributed forms of the holly in the United States (U.S.): the English holly (Ilex aquifolium) and the American Holly (Ilex opaca). English and American holly are not to be confused with the South American Ilex species, Ilex paraguariensi and Ilex guayusa, which are commonly used to make teas and other drinks for their reported antioxidant properties and caffeine content.

 

These shrubs   (The ENGLISH HOLLY and the AMERICAN HOLLY)  are most commonly used as holiday decorations, although they can be found in gardens. Holly exposure accounts for the 3rd highest rate of genus-specific human plant exposure calls in 2010     The berries containing the toxin saponin are poisonous; the leaves are not   The toxic component of the berries is saponin. The primary potential biological effect of saponin is a negative interaction with cellular membranes. Saponins can cause hemolysis in erythrocytes and alterations in permeability of small intestinal mucosal cells. Most ingestions cause little or no toxicity. The primary clinical effects observed, which occur exclusively with large ingestions, include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, and occasionally dermatitis. There can be allergic sensitization and worsening dermatitis with repeat exposures. Rarely, mydriasis, hyperthermia, and drowsiness have also been reported.

 

Poisonings most often occur in children, and most cases are harmless. In adults, one must eat 20-30 berries before becoming symptomatic, whereas children only have to consume 5.

 

Holly, commonly found during the Christmas season, can cause intense vomiting, diarrhea and depression in pets.

 

 

Bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara) and Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum)

 Bittersweet, or the woody nightshade, is a semi-woody perennial vine introduced from Europe. Common to the northern U.S. and southern Canada,  it has purple and yellow flowers with 5 spreading petals and red ovoid berries. The Jerusalem cherry, or Christmas orange, is a perennial grown as a decorative houseplant. Originating in the Middle East, it now flourishes in Hawaii and the Gulf Coast states. It also has 5-petaled flowers but typically has yellow-red-orange berries. Solanum-related poison center calls in general are common, and S. dulcamara alone made up the 22nd most species-specific U.S. poison center calls.

 

 In both of these plants the immature fruit is more poisonous than the still-toxic ripened fruit due to the glycoalkaloid solanine.  Solanine may exert toxicity through alteration of mitochondrial potassium and calcium transport, but this mechanism is speculative. In animals solanine exhibits cholinesterase activity and cardiac glycoside effects, but these effects are not seen in human poisoning.

 The clinical effects of solanine are primarily gastroenteritis and abdominal cramping. Salivation, bradycardia, tachycardia, hypotension, and altered mental status have also been documented. Symptoms usually occur several hours after ingestion and may persist for several days. The solanine effects seem more potent in children; in adults, solanine has little toxicity. While 1 source reported that just several bittersweet or Jerusalem cherry berries can prove fatal in children,

 

 Of the plants discussed thus far, it seems as though bittersweet and Jerusalem cherry constitute the most danger

 

 

 

 

 A LITTLE EXTRA CAUTION FOR THOSE OF YOU WHO HAVE INSIDE PETS:

 

 

Holiday Tinsel and Ornaments

 

Tinsel, while not toxic, is very attractive to pets, particularly cats. The shiny, dangling decoration reflects light and can move in the slightest draft — appearing to come alive to watchful critters.

 

The problem with tinsel is that once it’s consumed, it can cause serious injury to your pet. If not caught in time, this foreign body ingestion could actually be fatal as it twists and bunches inside your pet’s intestines. Immediate veterinary care is required

 

 

Christmas tree pine needles can produce oral irritation, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, trembling and posterior weakness.

 

The oils produced by fir trees can be irritating to a pet's mouth and stomach, causing excessive vomiting or drooling. The tree needles, meanwhile, may cause gastrointestinal irritation, obstruction and puncture.

 

If your dog or cat does manage to ingest any part of these holiday plants, call your veterinarian or poison control immediately to find out what you should do to minimize the damage.

 

 

 

 

West J Emerg Med. 2012 December

 

UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine

 

the book  DANGEROUS PLANTS  BY  JOHN  TAMPION

 

VPI

 

 Know Your Poisonous Plants by Wilma Roberts James

 

PLEASE EMAIL ME FOR  PDR FORMAT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

Poisonous Plants of the United States

In  the United States there are in the neighborhood of 500 poisonous plants, flowers,  shrubs, and  herbs.  The majority of them will just create a bad rash or other reaction, or will make a person sick for a day or so.   But, there are some that are fatal.   However, in most cases, not ALL of the plant is poisonous.   In this article I will mention some plants that most people are familiar with and  will  explain what part of the plant is poisonous and the symptoms of poisoning that you should look for.

 

 

THIS IS PART ONE:

 

 

ANGEL’S TRUMPET  of the NIGHTSHADE FAMILY.  This is an ornamental shrub and has a sweet musk scent, with trumpet shaped white flowers that open at night.  Generally this plant grows outdoors in California and Florida.  THE PARTS THAT ARE POISONOUS  ARE:  leaves, juice and seeds.  Signs of poisoning :  the symptoms may appear in a few minutes after drinking a “tea” made from the plant, but not for several hours after eating the seeds, uncooked leaves or sucking the juice.  SYMPTOMS: extreme thirst, blurred vision, high fever, rapid and weak heartbeat; convulsions and coma.

 

BLEEDING HEART   of the FUMITORY FAMILY.  This is a perennial herb . ALL PARTS of this herb are poisonous.  SYMPTOMS:  nervous symptoms are trembling, loss of balance, staggering, weakness, difficulty in breathing and convulsions.

 

 

BUTTERCUP  of the CROWFOOT FAMILY .  This is a perennial herb and is the common buttercup found through the United States in fields, pastures and meadows.  ALL PARTS, except the seeds are poisonous.  SYMPTOMS OF POISONING: blisters or inflammation around the mouth, irritated, skin, stomach pains, vomiting, diarrhea, and jerking spasms, temporary blindness and convulsions.

 

CALADIUM  of the ARUM FAMILY. These are  either inside or outside  ornamentals .  There are about 12 to 14 species of this genius, and EVERY species of CALADIUM has a bitter poisonous juice .  ALL PARTS of this plant are poisonous.    SYMPTOMS : soon after eating a small amount of the leaves the mouth will burn and swell. There will be an intense burning inside the throat along with a disturbed stomach, vomiting and diarrhea. After the tongue and throat swell, breathing may become difficult. Due to the blocking of the air passage, death may occur.

 

 

DEATH CAMAS  of the LILY FAMILY  Zigadenus veneosus.   This is a perennial plant that  is grown from Canada, to Florida. You will find this plant also in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California.  ALL PARTS of this plant are poisonous.  SYMPTOMS:   symptoms occur  from 1 ½ to 8 hours after eating parts of the plant.  They consist of abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, trembling, muscular weakness, struggling for breath, lowered body temperature, coma and death.

 

 

DUMCANE , Dieffenbachia  of THE ARUM FAMILY.   This is an evergreen foliage plant widely grown in greenhouses, homes , restaurants, and lobbies as potted ornamentals.  The LEAVES AND STEMS ARE POISONOUS.   SYMPTOMS:  Biting or chewing the stem or leaves produces intense burning and irritation of the lips, mouth and tongue. If these areas become swollen there will be intense pain, thus causing choking. The swelling can make the tongue motionless. Death may occur if the base of the tongue swells enough to block air passage of the throat.

 

 

ENGLISH HOLLY  of the HOLLY FAMILY  This is the familiar Christmas Holly and generally grows in Oregon and Washington state.  THE BERRIES are the poisonous part.  SYMPTOMS:   large amounts (I do not know what is considered as large amounts) causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and depression of the nervous system. The result may be fatal.

 

ENGLISH IVY  of the GINSENG FAMILY. This is an evergreen vine cultivated as a ground cover.  The LEAVES and BERRIES are poisonous.  SYMPTOMS:  sever  stomach pains, diarrhea, labored breathing, coma.  It is possibly fatal.

 

 

FOXGLOVE  of the FIGWORT FAMILY.  Poisonous parts are LEAVES, FLOWERS and SEEDS .  The leaves are the source of the drug digitalis. However, overdoses result in death.  Severe poisoning comes from eating the fresh or dried leaves which do not lose their toxicity by cooking.  SYMPTOMS: bloody diarrhea, severe headache, mental confusion, blurred vision, trembling, irregular heartbeat, convulsions and death.

 

 

HYDRANGEA   Hydrangea macrophylla  of the SAXIFRAGE FAMILY.   A/k/a hortensia.  commonly planted as an ornamental.  The BUDS, LEAVES and BRANCHES are poisonous.   SYMPTOMS;  diarrhea with blood, rapid breathing and heartbeat, nervous excitement, convulsions and can be fatal.

 

LILY OF THE VALLEY of the LILY FAMILY .   ALL PARTS ARE POISONOUS, especially the leaves, flower, berries and rootstocks.  They contain dangerous amounts of cardiac glycosides.  Even drinking the water from a vase containing a bouquet of lily of the valley  can cause death.  SYPMTOMS:  irregular heart and pulse beat, mental confusion, extreme weakness, depression and collapse of circulation and death. The reaction is much like that of digitalis.

 

 

More to follow later.

 

Information if from the book:  Know Your Poisonous Plants  by Wilma Roberts James

 

 
 

Horehound and Horsemint

The tendency to get herbs and their uses mixed up is not unusual at all.  That is why it is s especially important to know both the English name and the Latin name of the herb that we are using.  In this blog, I want to use two herbs: HORE HOUND and HORSEMINT that may seem the same, but are not.  

 

HOREHOUND  (hoarhound)

 

Marrubium vulgare (white or common horehound) of the MINT FAMILY  {Labiatae}

 

Common name: Marrubium

 

 

Description: This is a busy stem, leafy, and branching from the bottom to one or two feet in height. The leaves are roundish-ovate, rough and veiny above, wooly on the under surface, one or two inches in diameter; the flowers are small and white.

 

 

Hoar hound  originated in Europe, North Africa, and Asia,  but grows well here in the United States from Maine, to Texas to California and Oregon.  It grows on dry sandy fields, waste grounds and road sides, flowering from June to September.  The entire plant has a white or hoary appearance; the whole herb is medicinal and should be gathered before its efflorescence. It has a peculiar, rather agreeable, vinous balsamic odor, and a very bitter, aromatic, somewhat acrid and persistent taste.

 

Hoar hound is used as a stimulant, tonic, weak diaphoretic, decongestant , antiseptic, emmenagogue,  expectorant, and weak  diuretic. It is used in the form of a syrup, in ordinary colds , coughs, and fevers as well as for hoarseness. The warm infusion will promote perspiration and flow of urine. The cold infusion is an excellent tonic and will act as a purgative in large doses. Useful in many respiratory   disorders, but, specifically in  bronchitis and coughs.

 

In ancient times horehound was used in magic.  It was also used for hepatitis, tumors, tuberculosis, typhoid, paratyphoid, snakebite, worms, jaundice and bronchitis; to improve the eyesight, remove obstructions from the liver and spleen. My, my, such an impressive herb!  However,  recent research has narrowed the benefits of horehound down to just coughs, colds, hoarseness and such.   It won’t cure your cold or bronchitis, but, it will relieve your coughing fits and help greatly with hoarseness.

 

Parts used: leaves and tops.

 

Horehound drops are a candy/cough medicine made from Marrubium vulgare

 

 

WHITE WOOLY HOREHOUND ( Marrubium incanum)  this is a perennial, 2 to 3 feet tall and 15 inches wide, with hairy leaves and whorls of white flowers in summer. 

 

Parts used: leaves and flowers for coughs and colds.

 

 

 

 BLACK HOREHOUND ( Ballota nigra)       Labiatae   a/k/a  Stinking  Horehound

 

This is a generally unattractive herb distinguished by its strong and objectionable  odor.   Thus, the name stinking horehound. This herb is also  rejected by cattle.  

 

Native of  Europe and United States.  Found in wasteland, hedgerows and on walls; prefers nitrogen –rich , moist, rather loose soil.  This is generally a wild plant.

 

 

This is a strong smelling perennial with angular branched hairy stems, 40-100 cm high, bearing heart-shaped leaves, crenulated, 2-5 cm long, opposite and often turning black after flowering;  whorls of typical labiate purple flowers borne in axils;  appearing mid summer to late autumn.

 

 Black horehound contains chemicals that affect the brain. There is some concern that black horehound might affect treatment for Parkinson’s disease.

 

Black horehound may affect the menstrual cycle, and this could threaten the pregnancy

 

Schizophrenia and psychotic disorders: Black horehound contains chemicals that affect the brain. There is some concern that black horehound might harm people with schizophrenia and psychotic disorders.

 

 

GREEK HOREHOUND (Ballota acetabulosa) Lamiaceae family    native to Southeast Greece, Crete, and West Turkey

 

It is a compact, evergreen subshrub growing to 0.5 metres (20 in). Upright woolly grey shoots turn to rounded grey-green leaves, bearing whorls of small pink flowers with funnel-shaped green calyces in late summer and autumn. It is tolerant of poor soil and drought, and often used in cultivation as groundcover

 

 

 

HORSE MINT (Monarda Punctata) A/K/A  Spotted beebalm, Spotted horsemint, Dotted horsemint. Some people have a tendency  to use this herb interchangeably with Bee balm or Mountain mint (Pycnanthemum spp), but, even though the BEE BALM, MOUNTAIN MINT and the HORSEMINT  are of the MINT FAMILY, they are not one and the same herb.

 

 This is a perennial plant , growing 2 to 6 feet high; stems are branched, downy leaves 2 to 3 inches long, lanceolate, serrate, punctate.  The flowers are actually small and arranged in a whorl around the stem; repeated a great many times up the stalk.  Each whorl is subtended by showy bracts - modified leaves that look like flower petals.  In dotted horsemint, these bracts range in color from deep lavender to a very pale lavender. The flowers themselves are white with lavender spots.

 

This appears to be a native Florida herb.

 

 Parts used are the leaves and tops.

 

Horsemint is aromatic, pungent and bitter and contains volatile oil. It is useful as a carminative and diuretic in flatulent colic and nausea.

 

 

 

The Herbalist  by  Joseph E Meyer  1932

 

Rodale’s Iluustrated Encyclopeia of Herbs

 

Wilflowers in Color by Arthur Stupka

 

The Encyclopeida of Herbs and Herblism  by  Malcom Stuart

 

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

 
 

Herbal Anatomy

 

ANNUAL PLANTS spring from the seed, make their full growth  and then die at the end of a season.

 

A BIENNIAL PLANT does not flower the first year, but produces leaves only. The second year of its growth it flowers, after which it dies. The carrot and parsnip are examples of biennials

 

A PERENNIAL PLANT lives for more than two years. If the plant retains its leaves during the winter, it is known as an EVERGREEN; if the leaves fall upon the approach of cold weather, it is said to be DECIDUOUS.

 

AN HERB is a plant having a soft stem which dies down to the ground after the plant has reached it full growth.

 

A SHRUB is a plant which has a woody stem, grows to a height of twenty-five to thirty feet or less, and branches near the ground.

 

A  TREE has a woody stem, is higher than a shrub and does NOT branch near the ground.

 

  A  STOLON is a form of a branch which curves or falls down to the ground, where they often strike root.

 

A CLIMBING PLANT is any plant using an external support to raise itself above the ground. The term “vine” is used for certain climbing plants.

 

 

A  SUCKER is a branch of subterraneous origin, which, after running horizontally and emitting roots in its course, at length rises out of  the ground and forms an erect stem, which soon becomes an independent plant.  Examples are roses, raspberries, mints.

 

A RUNNER is a prostrate, slender branch sent off from the base of the parent stem.

 

An OFFSET is a similar but shorter branch, with a tuft of leaves at the end, as in the house-leek.

 

A SPINE  is a short and imperfectly developed branch of a woody plant, as exhibited in the honey-locust.

 

A TENDRIL is commonly a slender leafless branch, capable of coiling spirally, like grapevines.

 

WHORLED  several stems, leaves or flowers, arising in a ring around the stem.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE ROOTS

 

 

Definition of The ROOT.     The ROOT of a plant is that portion which is usually found in the earth, the stem and leaves being in the air.  The point of union is called the collar or neck of the plant.

 

ADVENTITIOUS  ROOT   is a root developing on a part of a plant (stem) other than a root.

 

ANTHROPOMORPHIC  shaped like a human being

 

AREIAL ROOTS are those emitted from the stem into the open air.

 

A BULB  is an extremely abbreviated stem clothed with scales, such as a lily.

 

A CORM  swollen base of a stem, not consisting of layers.

 

A  CONICAL ROOT is one where it tapers regularly from the crown to the apex, as that of a carrot.

 

A  FASCICULATED ROOT is  a root where some of the fibers or branches are thickened.

 

The FIBROUS ROOT  is one composed of many spreading branches.

 

A  FUSIFORM ROOT  is a root that tapers up as well as down, such as the radish.

 

A  NAPIFORM ROOT is more swollen at the base, and becomes broader rather than long, such as a turnip. 

 

A  PALMATE ROOT is when these knobs are branched.

 

A  RHIZOME, swollen underground stem lasting more than one year

 

ROOT STOCK  swollen underground part of a plant.

 

TAPROOT  is the main root

 

A  TUBER swollen underground portion of a root or stem.

 

A TUBERIFEROUS ROOT is when some of the branches assume the form of a rounded knob, such as the potato.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE STEM

 

Definition of STEM:      The  STEM is that portion of the plant which grows in an opposite direction from the root, seeing the light and exposing itself to the air. 

 

All flowering plants posses stems.

 

 

The stem of an herb does not become woody, but dies down to the ground at least after flowering.

 

The  stem of  tree is usually called the trunk.

 

The stem in grasses is the cuim.

 

Those stems which are too weak to stand erect are said to be decumbent, procumbent and prostrate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE LEAF

 

The leaf is commonly raised on an unexpanded part or stalk which is call the petiole, while the expanded portion is termed the lamina, limb or blade. When the vessels or fibers of the leaves expand immediately on leaving the stem, the leaf is said to be sessile. In such cases the petiole is absent. When the blade consists of a single piece, the leaf is simple; when composed of two or three more with a branched petiole, the leaf is compound.

 

 

The distribution of the veins or framework of the leaf in the blade is termed venation.

 

 

A linear leaf is an elongated shape with nearly parallel sides.

 

A lanceolate leaf has the form of a lance ;  wide in the middle and gradually tapering  at each end.

 

An ovate leaf is oval shaped.

 

an obovate leaf  is one having the veins more developed beyond the middle of the blade.

 

A cuneiform  ( or cuneate)     leaf is wedge shaped

 

A cordate leaf is heart shaped

 

A reniform is kidney shaped

 

A sagittate leaf is arrow shaped

 

 A hastate leaf  is shaped like the head of a spear with sharp basal lobes spreading away from the base of the petiole

 

A peltate leaf is shaped like a shield

 

A serrate leaf  is one in which the margin is beset with sharp teeth, which point forward towards the apex.

 

A dentate leaf   these teeth are NOT directed towards the apex

 

A crenate leaf has rounded teeth

 

A sinuate leaf has alternate concavities and convexities (wavy)

 

 

a pinnate leaf is shaped like a feather

 

a pectinate leaf has very close and narrow divisions, like the teeth of a comb.

 

A lyrate leaf has the shape of a lyre

 

A runcinate leaf is  a lyrate leaf with sharp lobes pointing towards the base, like a dandelion leave.

 

A palmate leaf  resembles the hand

 

a pedate leaf  looks like a bird's foot

 

leaves which arise directly from a rootstock, not from an aerial stem are said to be radical

 

Rosette leaves are clustered at ground level

Sessil    leaves have no stalk

Truncate leaves are cut off straight across.

 

When a leaf at its outer edge has no dentations it is said to be entire.

When the leaf terminates in an acute angle it is acute, when in an obuse angle it is obtuse.  An obtuse leaf with the apex slightly depressed is retuse, or if more strongly notched emarginate.

 

An obovate leaf with a wider or more conspicuous notch at the apex becomes obcordate, being a cordate leaf inverted.

 

When the apex is cut off by a straight transverse line the leaf is truncate, when abruptly terminated by a small projecting  point it is mucronate; and when an acute leaf has a narrowed apex it is acuminate.

 

In ferns the leaves are called fronds.

FLOWERS

 

The organs of a flower are of two sorts.

1)                  the leaves ( or envelopes).

2)                  Those peculiar organs having no resemblance to the envelopes.

 

The envelopes are of two kinds (or occupy two rows, one above or within the other) :

      1)  the lower or outer row is termed the Calyx, and commonly exhibits the green color of the leaves.

 

      2)  the inner row, which is usually of more delicate texture and forms the most showy part of the flower, is termed the Corolla.

 

The several parts of the leaves of the Corolla are called Petals, and the leaves of the Calyx are also called  Sepals.

 

The floral envelopes are collectively called the Perianth.

 

The essential organs enclosed within a floral envelope are also of two kinds and occupy two rows one within the other. The first of these, those next within the petals, are the Stamens. A stamen consists of a stalk called the Filament, which bears on its summit a rounded body termed the Anther, filled with a substance called the Pollen.

 

The seed bearing organs occupy the center or summit of a flower, and are called Pistils.  A pistil is distinguished into three parts;

1)   the ovary containing the ovales (ovule)

2)   the style, or columnar prolongation of the ovary

3)                  the stigma or termination of the style.

 

All the organs of the flower are situated on, or grow out of the apex of the flower stalk, into which they are inserted and which is called the Torus or Receptacle.

 

A plant is said to be monoecious, where the stamens and pistils are in separate flowers on the same individual , dioecious, where they occupy separate flowers on different individuals, and polygamous where the stamens and pistils are separate in some flowers and untied in others, either on the same or two or three different plants.

 

 

 
 
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