Medicine Woman

  (Waynesville, North Carolina)
dangerous herbs, medicinal herbs, culinary herbs
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Glossary part 4

This is part 4 and the last of the GLOSSARY that I had started earlier.  I do hope that you enjoy this as much as I do! 


For those who have shown interest in reading all 4 parts of my GLOSSARY,   Thanks, very much!






 GLOSSARY  PART 4    J  through W






JAUNDICE   yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes, or whites of the eyes, caused by a buildup of bilirubin ( a bile pigment) in the skin









LEECH  An Anglo-Saxon word for a healer. The art of the leech is leechcraft or leechdom




LEECHBOOK  An Anglo-Saxon book of medicine.





LETHARGY  A feeling of tiredness, drowsiness or lack of energy.




LITER   A metric unit of volume equal to 1,000 cubic centimeters or  1.05 quarts liquid measure




LITHOTRIPTIC  an agent that dissolves urinary calculi  (stones)



LYMPH  fluid contained in lymphatic vessels, which flows through the lymphatic system to be returned to the blood.



LYMPH NODE   one of many rounded structures, ranging from the size of a pinhead to a grape, that filter out bacteria and other toxic substances to stop them from entering the bloodstream and causing infection.  Lyme nodes also produce lymphocytes, a type of blood cell.

















MALABSORPTION   Impaired absorption of nutrients most often a result of diarrhea.



MENORRHAGIA   excessive loss of blood during menstrual periods.



METABOLISM  the sum of all biochemical reactions in the body, including anabolism (building of complex chemicals from less complex ones) and catabolism ( breakdown of complex substances into simpler ones).



METRORRHAGIA   Normal uterine bleeding at an abnormal time.



MICROGRAM  A unit a weight in the metric system that's one-millionth of a gram or one   one-thousandth (0.001) of a milligram



MILILITER  A unit of volume  in the metric system that's one  one-thousandth (0.001) of a liter.



MINIM   a unit of capacity in the British imperial system that's one six - hundredth (0.06) of a milliliter



MUCILAGINOUS  Substance that is slimy, gooey, sticky.  It has the property of moistening, soothing, and helping heal skin and mucous membranes.   Soothing to all inflammation




MUSCLE RELAXANT   a drug that reduces tension in the muscles, commonly used to treat muscle spasms resulting from muscle, bone, or joint injury



MUTATION  an alteration in a cell's DNA caused by a disruption in cell division or by exposure to a cancer-causing substance or certain other substances.



MYELIN SHEATH   a white fatty substance that surrounds nerve cells to aid in nerve impulse transmission










NARCOTIC   Substance that lessens pain by causing depression of the central nervous system.  Causes stupor and numbness.



NATUROPATHY  An alternative system of medical practice that combines a mainstream understanding of human physiology and disease with alternative remedies, such as herbal and nutritional therapies, acupuncture, hydrotherapy and counseling. Naturopathic doctors favor natural treatments aimed at stimulating the body's own healing ability over drugs and surgery



NAUSEANT  produces vomiting




NEPHRITIS   inflammation of the kidney; the glomeruli, tubules and interstitial tissue may be affected.



NERVINE   strengthens functional activity of nervous system; may be stimulants or sedative.



NEURALGIA  pain in and originating along nerve fibers.



NSAID       Non steroidal  anti inflammatory drug       This is a drug that reduces inflammation n and controls pain without the use of steroids. Examples are Advil, Indocin, Orudis and Naprosyn










OPHTHALMICUM  a remedy for eye diseases



OXYTOCIC   agent that stimulates contractions accelerating childbirth.












PARASITICIDE   an agent that kills parasites and worms



PARTURIENT  stimulates uterine contraction which induce and assist labor.



PECTORAL  a remedy for chest affections



PERISTALSIS  the alternate contraction and relaxation of the walls of a tubular structure by means of which its contents are moved onward, characteristic of the intestinal tract, ureter, etc




PHENOTHIAZINE  a drug used to control psychosis or ease vomiting



PHYTOMEDICINE  herbal medicine



PHARMACOPOEIA   a list of drugs and formulas



POULTICE   A warm, damp pack of herbs applied to a wound or sprain to draw the blood and relieve pain.




PRECURSOR  starts a chain reaction which accelerates growth.



PROPHYLACTIC   any agent or regimen that contributes to the prevention of infection and disease.



PROSTAGLANDIN    hormone like substance that has a wide range of functions including acting as chemical messenger and causing uterine contractions.


PRURITUS  itching; an inflammation of the skin that produces itching



PSYCHOACTIVE   a consciousness-altering herb, often hallucinogenic or narcotic



PULMONARY EDEMA  a condition in which fluid builds up in the spaces outside the lung's blood vessels.



PUNGENT    penetrating or sharp to the taste



PURGATIVE   Laxative       Causes watery evacuation of intestinal contents



PUTREFACTION  decomposition of organic matter, especially proteins, by the action of bacteria, resulting in the formation of foul smelling compounds.




PSA  TEST   PROTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN  TEST   a blood test that measures the level of protein produced by prostate gland cells.  The PSA  test is used to help detect prostate diseases.










REFRIGERANT   an herb that cools the blood and thus reduces fever



RELAXANT   relaxes nerves and muscles; relieves tension



RESOLVENT   that which reduces inflammation or swelling.



RESTORATIVE   an agent that is effective in the regaining of health and strength; restores normal physiological activity



RHINITIS   inflammation of the sinus membranes beginning in the mucous membranes of the nose (rhino means  “nose”)



RUBEFACIENT  stimulates blood flow to the skin thus  producing redness of the skin

















SEDATIVE   an herb that calms or tranquilizes  specific organs or systems; cardiac, nervous, cerebral, spinal



SIALAGOGUE  an agent that stimulates the secretion of saliva



SOPORIFIC  inducing sleep



SIMPLE   A single herb given as a remedy



SPASMOLYTIC    antispasmodic



STILL ROOM  BOOK  An eighteenth century privately kept book f herbal recipes.



STIMULANT   increases internal heat, dispels internal chill and strengthens metabolism and circulation  ( can produce a sense of well being)



STOMACHIC   an herb that aids  and strengthens the stomach function



STYPTIC  a blood staunching herb  ( stops hemorrhage)




SUDORIFIC  produces sweat



SUFFUMIGATION  An application of smoke or fumes.        Incense



SYSTEMIC  relating to or affecting the entire body









TAENIFUGE  agent that expels tapeworms



TANNIN   active plant constituents that combined with proteins; stringent .  Astringent compounds in plants that protect the plant from yeasts, being eaten, and bacterial decay.



TAPEWORM   any of several ribbon like worms that infest the intestines




TINCTURE  A mixture of herbal extract and alcohol.  Useful  because of the preservative and extractive properties of alcohol on herbs.



TISANE  a French word for an herb tea.



TONIC   restoring, nourishing and supporting for the entire body; a substance that exerts a gentle strengthening effect on the body. 



TOPICAL USE   application of a drug or an herbal product to the skin and surface tissues of the body.  (Ointments,  solutions, dusting powders, nasal drops, rectal and vaginal suppositories, ear and eye drops )



TOXIN   a poisonous substance of animal or plant origin



TRITURATION  a process of rubbing herbs and spices down to a fine powder and blending them.










UNGUENT   An archaic term for ointment or salves.



UREMIA    toxic condition associating  the renal insufficiency produced by the retention in the blood of nitrogenous substances normally excreted by the kidney.



URINARY ANTISEPTIC  substance that is antiseptic to the urinary tract.



UTERINE TONIFIER  substance that has a strengthening activity on the tissues of the uterus.










VAGINITIS   inflammation of the vagina, from irritation or infection



VASOCONSTRICTOR   an agent that narrows blood vessel openings, restricting the flow of blood through them



VASODILATOR  cases relaxation of blood vessels



VERMIFUGE  worm expellant




VERTIGO  the sensation of spinning or dizziness



VOLATILE  quickly evaporating



VULNERARY  assists in healing f wounds by protecting against infection and stimulating cell growth








WORT   from the Old English  wyrt,  meaning a root or plant. In herbalism, an herb, usually used as a combined term.   e.g  St John's wort,   liverwort.





Here is part three of my glossary that I would like to share with you:



ECZEMA             chronic skin inflammation

EDEMA                     accumulation of fluid in tissues (swelling)

EMETIC                  produces vomiting

EMMENAGOGUE                induces monthly

EMOLLIENT                  softens and soothes inflamed parts

(when used internally it is called a demulcent)

ENTERITIS                 inflammation of the small intestine

ENTERVATE                      to deprive of strength, vigor; to weaken physically and mentally

EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS                  the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis and that is associated with Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal cancer.

ESCULENT                     edible

ESTROGEN              hormone that exert female characteristics

EXANTHEMATOUS              remedy for skin eruptions and diseases

EXPECTORANT            substance that causes mucus in the lungs and bronchial passages to come out more easily, usually through coughing ( or encourages the loosening and removal of phlegm from the respiratory tract.)


FEBRIFUGE         reduces fevers

FISTULA                    an abnormal passage between two internal organs, or from an organ to the surface of the body

FLACCID                 not firm or stiff; limp; lacking in force or vigor

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION            The U.S federal agency that protects the public against health hazards from food and food additives and ensure the safety and effectiveness of drugs, medical devices, and dietary supplements.

FORMULATION                  a drug product prepared according to a specific composition

FREE RADICAL               A molecule containing an odd number of electrons. Some researchers believe free radicals may play a role in cancer development by interacting with DNA and impairing normal cell function


CALACTOGOGUE                  agent that promotes the flow of milk


GALLBLADDER                the pear-shaped organ located just under the liver that acts as a bile reservoir.

GASTRITIS inflammation of the stomach lining ( intestinal tract)

GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE               Inflammation of the esophagus caused by back-flow of acid from the stomach. Its main symptom is chronic heartburn

GIARDIA                    a genus of flagellate protozoa some of which are parasitic in the intestinal tract of man and domestic animal; transmitted by ingestion of cysts in fecal contaminated water and food; interfere with the absorption of facts; boiling water inactivates them

GINGIVITIS                       inflammation of the gums

GLAUCOMA                a condition in which the pressure of the fluid in the eye is so high that it causes damage


GOITER                   an enlargement of the thyroid gland that causes swelling in the front of the neck

GOUT                   inflammation of joints caused by uric acid crystals lodging in them.

GRAIN                   the smallest unit of weight in the apothecary system, equivalent to 0.06 gram

GRAM                       the basic unit of weight in the metric system, equivalent to 1/1000 of a kilogram or three one hundredths (0.03) of an ounce


HEART ATTACK                sudden blockage of one or more of the arteries that supply blood to the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle

HEMATURIA                  blood in the urine

HEMOLYTIC                      a substance which destroys red blood cells

HEMORRHAGE                  bleeding, usually rapid and significant

HEMORRHOID                an abnormally swollen vein beneath the lining of the anal canal or near the anus that may cause itching, pain or bleeding

HEMOSTATIC                    stop bleeding

HEPATIC              herbs that support and stimulate the liver, gall bladder and spleen and increase the flow of bile.

HEPATITIS                         inflammation of the liver

HERPETIC                   a remedy for skin diseases of all types

HERNIA                the projection or out pouching of an organ or a part of an organ through the wall that normally contains it.

HISTAMINE              a chemical found in all tissues that causes tiny arteries called capillaries to widen, makes smooth muscles contract, increases the heart rate, causes blood pressure to drop, and promotes secretion of stomach acids. Histamine is formed and released during allergic reactions.

HIVES        Itchy, raised, red areas of inflamed skin caused by an allergic reaction

HOMEOSTASIS                      equilibrium of internal environment

HYDRAGOGUE                   promotes watery evacuation of the bowels

HYPERTENSIVE                    used to increase blood pressure

HYPNOTIC                   induces sleep

HYPOGLYCEMIA           abnormal concentration of sugar in the blood ( low blood sugar)

HYPOTENSIVE                     used to reduce blood pressure



IMMUNOSTIMULANT              a substance that stimulates the immune system's health and ability to respond to disease either gradually or quickly

INCONTINENCE                 the inability to control urination or defecation

INDOLENT                           sluggish; casing little or no pain

INFUSION               An extremely strong tea made with either hot or cold water and and herb

IRRITANT                  induces a local inflammation

INTERFERON                   a potent immune enhancing substance that is produced by the body's cells to fight off viral infection and cancer


GLOSSARY Part 2 B thro D



Here is the second series of my glossary regarding the meanings of the words used.

Starting with THE LETTER B

BACTERICIDE destroys bacteria

BARBITURATE A drug that causes sedation, a hypnotic state, or both. Barbiturates can be addictive.

BENZODIAZEPINE A drug used to treat anxiety or sleeping disorders, to relax muscles, or to control seizures.

BETA BLOCKER A drug that decreases the rate and force of heart contractions and widens blood vessels, helping to reduce blood pressure. Beta blockers typically are prescribed for people with coronary artery disease, angina ( (chest pains caused by heart problems), irregular heartbeats, or a history of heart attacks.

BILIRUBIN the breakdown product of the hemoglobin molecule of red blood cells

BINDER A substance added to a drug or herbal product to hold together the product's ingredients.

BIOFLAVONOID One of a group of naturally occurring plant compounds needed to strengthen tiny blood vessels called capillaries. Some researches believe bioflavonoids may help protect against cancer and infection.

BIOMEDICINE A system of medicine based on the principles of natural sciences.

BITTER TONIC an herb or a group of herbs that stimulates the digestive processes.

BLOOD CLEANSER an agent that cleanses the blood

BLOOD PURIFIER an agent that cleanses the blood as well as enhancing the blood by increasing the nutrient value.

BLOOD PURIFIER An herb that stimulates the digestive and excretory processes of the body to aid in the elimination of waste products.

BLOOD THINNER A drug tat prevents blood clotting ( heparin, coumadin, warfarin)

BRONCHITIS Inflammation of bronchial mucous membranes.


CALMATIVE gently clams nerves

CANDIDA yeast-like fungi

CANDIDA ALBICANS the fungus responsible for monilial infections, such as thrush, vaginitis and sometimes systemic infections

CANDIDIASIS any disease condition caused by the yeast CANDIDA ALBICANS. It is commonly found on the skin and in the mouth, vagina, and rectum. Overuse of antibiotics and anti inflammatory drugs, which interfere with the normal metabolic checks and balances of the body, has caused many people to suffer from candidiasis and allowed the once rare disease to become something of a national celebrity.

CARDIAC heart tonic or restorative

CARDIOACTIVE a substance that acts directly on the muscles of the heart

CARDIOTONIC substance that regulates or strengthens heart action and metabolism; whatever the condition of the heart, a cardiotonic brings it back to a normal range of action.

CARMINATIVE relieves intestinal gas pain and distension; promotes peristalsis

CARBUNCLE painful infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues with production and discharge of pus and dead tissue, similar to a boil (faruncle) but more severe and with multiple sinus formation; usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

CATAPLASM another name for poultice

CATARRH inflammation of a mucous membrane, especially of the nose and throat, with discharge

CATHARTIC a strong laxative which causes rapid evacuation

CELL PROLIFERATOR enhances the formation of new tissue to speed the healing process

CEPHALIC remedies used in diseases of the head

CHOLAGOGUE stimulates bile flow from the gall bladder and bile ducts into the duodenum

( induces gall bladder contraction)

CHOLERETIC substance that encourages the liver to produce bile

CHRONIC designating a disease showing little change or of slow progression; opposite of acute

CIMCIFUGA to drive away bugs, neutralizes rattlesnake bites, scorpion stings

COLIC spasmodic pain effecting smooth muscle, such a the intestines, gall bladder or urinary tract

COLITIS inflammation of the colon

COLON the main part of the large intestine, which connects the small intestine with the rectum. It converts what's left of consumed food into stool by removing water and salts.

COMPOUND a substance made up or two or more ingredients

COMPRESS a soft pad usually mad of cloth, that's used to apply heat, cold, or drugs or herbs to the surface of a body area.

COUNTERIRRITANT causing irritation in one part to relieve pain in another part

CYST an abnormal lump or swelling, filled with fluid or semi solid cheesy material in any body organ or tissue

CYSTITIS inflammation of the inner lining of the bladder. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection


DEBILITY weakness of tonicity in functions or organs of the body.

DECOCTION a substance prepared by boiling

DECONGESTANT a substance that acts to break up congestion

DEHYDRATION deficient in fluids

DEMENTIA an organic mental syndrome marked by general loss of intellectual abilities, with chronic personality disintegration confusion, disorientation and stupor.

DEMULCENT soothing to mucous membranes ( lubricates and coats the stomach and intestine linings.)

DEOBSTRUENT removes obstruction

DEPURANT stimulates excretions

DEPURATIVE purifies the blood

DETERGENT cleansing to boils, ulcers, and wounds

DISCUTIENT dissolves and heals tumors

DIAPHORETIC stimulates sweating


DIURETIC acts to increase the flow of urine.

DIVERTICULI pathological sac like out pouchings of the wall of the colon

DOCTRINE OF SIGNATURES in herbal medicine, the primitive method of determining which plants should be used for which aliments, based on the plant's resemblance to the ailment. For example, the heart shaped leaves for heart conditions and plants with red flowers for bleeding disorders.

DRAM a unit of weigh equivalent to 1/8 ounce or 60 grains

DRASTIC a very active cathartic which produces a violent peristalsis

DUODENUM the beginning of the small intestine; lies just below the stomach.

DYSMENORRHEA painful menstruation

DYSPEPSIA poor digestion, often with heart burn and stomach acid reflux

DYSPNEA sense of difficulty in breathing, often associated with lung or heart disease.




I thought I would share with you friends some of the meanings to words that we herbalists often throw around when describing some of our products . So, I've compiled a list of words in the “ A” section and their meanings. I'll continue to add more starting with “B' in the next couple of days. I hope that this list is helpful.


ABORTIFACIENT: A substance that induces abortion, premature expulsion of the fetus

ACE INHIBITOR a drug that blocks the formation of natural body chemical, thus relaxing blood vessels and decreasing water and salt retention. It's used to lower blood pressure or manage heart failure.

ACUTE an illness that comes on quickly, has severe symptoms and a generally short duration. e.g., measles or colds. The opposite of chronic

ADAPTOGEN an agent that increases resistance to stress

ADRENALINE a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that produce the “fight or flight” response. A/k/a epinephrine.

ALTERATIVE: cleansing, stimulating, efficient removal of waste products

AMENORRHEA absence or suppression of menstruation

ANALGESIC: relieves pain

ANAPHRODISIAC subdues sexual desire

ANAPHYLAXIS a severe, life threatening allergic reaction marked by flushing, hives, itching, swelling of the lips and eyelids, throat tightening, sudden hoarseness, nausea and vomiting. It can start within seconds of exposure to an allergy causing substance and can cause death within minutes unless treated immediately.

ANDROGEN hormones that stimulate male characteristics

ANESTHETIC deadens sensation and reduces pain

ANODYNE reduces pain

ANTAGONIST opposes the action of other medicines

ANTHELMINTIC A substance that can help to destroy and expel intestinal parasites

ANTI BACTERIAL destroys or stops the growth of bacterial infections

ANTI BILIOUS reduces biliary or jaundice condition

ANTIBIOTIC kills disease causing bacteria or prevents bacteria from reproducing.

ANTI CATARRHAL eliminates mucus conditions

ANTICOAGULANT slowing or stopping the clotting of blood

ANTI DEPRESSANT prevents or relieves symptoms of mental depression

ANTIDOTE a substance used to counteract a poison

ANTI EMETIC lessons nausea and prevents or relieves vomiting.

ANTI FUNGAL destroying or preventing the growth of fungi

ANTI GALACTAGOGUE prevents or decreases secretion of milk

ANTI HEMORRHAGIC stops bleeding and hemorrhaging

ANTI HEPATOXIC prevents toxins from negatively affecting the liver

ANTI HISTAMINE a drug that blocks the action of histamine, a body chemical released by the immune system, by binding to histamine receptors in various body tissues. In the nose, it stops histamines from making the nasal blood vessels expand ( the cause of runny nose)

ANTI HYPERTENSIVE lowers the blood pressure

ANTI INFLAMMATORY reduces inflammation and associated symptoms such as pain and swelling.

ANTI LITHIC prevents or relieves stones in the urinary organs

ANTI MICROBIAL destroys or prevents the growth of micro organisms

ANTI MUTAGENIC reduces or interferes with mutagenic activity of other substances

ANTI NEOPLASTIC prevents the growth of abnormal or cancerous cells

ANTI OXIDANT a substance such as vitamin E, that works alone or in a group to destroy disease causing substances called free radicals.

ANTI PERIODIC preventing regular recurrences of a disease or symptoms.

ANTI PHLOGISTIC reduces inflammation

ANTI PYRETIC reduces fever

ANTI RHEUMATIC prevents or relieves rheumatism

ANTI SEPTIC a substance used to destroy harmful microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa) or to inhibit their growth.

ANTI SPASMODIC relieves or prevents spasms of muscles and associated tissues

ANTI SYPHILITIC cures or relieves syphilis or venereal diseases.

ANTI THROMBOTIC prevents blood clots

ANTI TOXIC neutralizes a poison form the system

ANTI TUSSIVE: reduces or relieves coughs

ANTI VIRAL opposes the action of a virus

APERIENT mild laxative without purging

APERITIVE herbs that stimulate the appetite

APHRODISIAC stimulates sexual arousal

AROMATIC A substance containing volatile oils that have a strong and stimulating scent

ASTRINGENT has constricting or binding effect ; checks hemorrhages

ATONIC without normal tension or tone




A lot of people like to make bath teas or bath herbs for themselves. Some of the recipes that I've seen however, are way too much for a single bath. It seems that people think the same way with herbs as they do with medicine. If a little works good, a lot should work even better! This is a dangerous attitude to have. Herbs are potent, just as medicine is potent. Whenever I make up a formula it is just the right amount for a certain amount of small bath teas. 

If a large (5 x 7) bath tea is just tossed into a tub full of water, the very first bath is dangerous for you to take! Look at the color of your bath water! Is it a rust, or bright green or can you see bright color at all? If you can, there are TOO MUCH herbs in your bath! And, you should not get in that tub!

A small tea bag or muslin bag (3 x 5) is all you need for one ½ to ¾ full bath tub. And that same tea bag can be used one more time! You will see a very light color in your bath water,such as; light green or light yellow, but, your bath water color shouldn't change dramatically. You also should not spend more than 20 minutes in your herbal bath. Nor, should you be using other soaps, bubble bath products or what have you. When you step out of the tub, take a rough towel and dry yourself. Do not use lotions, otherwise you have just destroyed the good of the herbs.

The only time a large tea bag can be used is if you make it in a concentrate form; using 2 gallons of water, heat the water til boiling; drop ONE large tea bag in and let it steep NO MORE THAN 5 MINUTES. Take the bag out of the water. Let the water cool and pour the water into 2 glass gallon containers. When you want to take a bath, use NOT MORE THAN 1 cup of the concentrate that you just made, in a tub full of water.

That is the correct way to use a large (5 x 7) bath tea.




Some years ago, I saw a picture of some huge ice lights adorning a walkway. It was just a picture and it was not the main object of the picture, but, it was pretty just the same. I showed it to my husband and he figured out how to make the “lights”. After that, we did this every winter when we lived in Maine. I thought, I would share it with you and maybe some of you would also like to do this.

I named them NORWEGIAN CANDLES, maybe that is their name anyway, I don't know.

The outcome that you want is:

all along a walkway or even drive way, big huge ice candles on either side.

This is how you do it. Get the kids, because this is fun!


1) A 5 gallon empty plastic bucket, no holes, and preferably with a handle on it.

2) water

3) candles that are either long or big round ones. You can find these in any store. Just buy a few for now, after you get the hang of this, you can figure out what size you want. The candles don't have to be scented. You only need ONE candle per ice light.

You need to mark where you want your NORWEGIAN CANDLES to be. I suggest spacing them at least 3 feet from each other.


1) take your bucket and fill it full of water.

2) Leave it out side, preferably near your site, until absolutely frozen around the edges and thick

3) when frozen put the bucket over your first marked site and slowly, turn it upside down.

Generally the middle part will be hollow. You may have to coax the ice out, don't be rough, you want the entire piece.

4) get your candle, situate it right in the middle in the hole of your ice and light it. ( your candle goes INSIDE and DOWN in your ice. The ice looks something like a coffee mug, with a bottom of ice and yet deep enough to put the candle, so that the wind does not blow it out. )

Continue with the rest of your marked places

Only light the  NORWEGIAN CANDLES  at night. It may take a few days, depending on how many buckets you have around, to get all the NORWEGIAN CANDLES   that you want.

As long as it stays cold out, you will have your NORWEGIAN CANDLES  all winter long. Obviously, you will have to replenish your candles as they burn completely down.

I hope you enjoy your NORWEGIAN CANDLES as much as I did!


More Herbs and Food Combinations part two


A while back, I did a blog on spices and what they go well with. This time I will just use the herb and what foods it will enhance. Look through my blogs and you will also see how to make up your own spice blends, such as PUMPKIN PIE SPICE BLEND, SPICED NUTS, SPICY APPLE PIE BLEND, and more. You will find in another blog what spices will enhance what foods.

For those of you that are artistic, this would make a beautiful gift for someone who likes to cook and bake, or is new at cooking and baking. I had a friend who copied something like this by hand in calligraphy, on a long sheet of paper, dyed the paper some pretty color and made colored scroll work all around the edges, and made a small frame all around and made it so that it could be hung on the wall. She also said a few words of friendship and put her name on the bottom and DATED it. It was a very personalized gift. See what you can do!!     (email me for  PDF file and I will gladly send it to you!)

ANISE use in: sweet cream cheese appetizers, soups, fruit salads, applesauce, teas, fruit drinks, carrots, celery, coleslaw, sole, crab, spicy meat mixtures, cakes, cookies, sweet rolls, rye breads

BASIL use in: dips, canapes, all kinds of soups and stews, green salads, especially good on tomatoes, omelets, scrambled eggs, green beans, broccoli, cucumbers, egg plant, peas, spinach, zucchini, shrimp, fish, creole dishes, beef, pork, veal, lamb, all kinds of poultry and stuffing, wine vinegar

BAY use in: bouquet garni, fish chowders, tomato juice and stocks, with poached fish; in hearty fish dishes; and with roast chicken, beef roasts, and beef stew.

BORAGE use in; mild dips, all kinds of soups and stews, green salads, coleslaw, iced drinks, spinach, beets, shellfish, all kinds of meat and poultry and stuffing, cream sauces

BURNET use in: appetizer dips, canapes, cream soups, green salads, potato salad, iced drinks, asparagus, mushrooms, shellfish, tarter sauce, wine vinegar

CARAWAY use in: appetizer spreads and dips, canapes, potato soup, cabbage soups, goulash, coleslaw, potato salad, cream cheese, cottage cheese, cabbage, potatoes, green beans, carrots, red beets, cauliflower, casseroles, German dishes,meatballs, applesauce, cookies, breads,especially rye, apple pie, cakes

CELERY SEED use in: soups, stews, salads, curry dishes, poultry stuffing, fish and meat dishes, eggs, breads, vegetables

CHERVIL use in: potato, spinach and cream soups, in egg and chicken salads, salad dressings and mayonnaise, with fish, shellfish and chicken; in fish sauces and cheese spreads, with lettuce, potatoes, red beets and tomatoes and in a fines herbes combination

CHIVES use in: all kinds of appetizers, all kinds of soups, stews, all kinds of salads, omelets, cheese dishes, deviled eggs, potatoes,carrots, corn, green beans, mushrooms, peas, red beets, summer squash, tomatoes, all kinds of other vegetables, shellfish, broiled fish, all kinds of meat and poultry, tartar sauce, butter sauces,cheese sauces, wine vinegar

CORIANDER use the seeds in curries and pickling spice mixtures; with lentils, lima beans, peas, potato dumplings, in biscuits, breads, lamb dishes; carrot cake and pies.

Use the leaves in: Mexican, Chinese, Indian and Moroccan dishes, in meat, rice and lentil dishes; with corn, zucchini , chicken, and in salads.

CUMIN use in; Mexican, oriental, and Indian and middle eastern dishes, in curries, stews, chili, spicy meat and vegetable dishes; with green beans,cabbage, in deviled eggs; breads and with cheese

DILL use the leaves in:all kinds of appetizers, potato soups,salads and salmon; potato salad, rice dishes and borscht; green salads, coleslaw, cottage cheese, green beans, carrots, cucumbers and potatoes. omelets, cauliflower, tomatoes, halibut, salmon, lamb, ham, cream chicken, tartar sauce, butter sauces, wine vinegar, rye bread

use the seeds in: salad dressings, fish soups, meat dishes, lamb stew,, and egg and potato dishes, cabbage and in breads.

FENNEL use the seeds and leaves with fish; in spicy meat mixtures; with eggs, cabbage, red beets, squash and apples; in stuffings and breads

use Florence fennel as a vegetable; serve raw like celery, braise, bake au gratin or turn into a cream soup.

GARLIC Use with everything except sweets. Use for soups, salads, fish, poultry, meat and egg dishes; in stews, sauces an mayonnaise, in breads and with any vegetables; to make oil and vinegar dressings.

GINGER use fresh ginger in oriental and Indian dishes, with fish, chicken, meats and vegetables

use dried ginger with pot roasts, poultry, carrots, red beets, squash and sweet potatoes; in breads, cakes, cookies, puddings, fruit salads and stewed fruit mixtures.

HORSERADISH use in cocktail and mustard sauces; in sauces for fish, roast beef and in green vegetables; in salad dressings; with boiled meats; in sandwiches and with red beets

LOVAGE Use the leaves and stalks sparingly as a celery substitute in soups, salads, potato salad, stews and stuffings; braise the stalks as a vegetable.

use the seeds in chicken salad, meat loaf, breads and herb butters.

MARJORAM use in: cream cheese dips and appetizers, all kinds of soups and stews, green salads, chicken salad, vegetable cocktails, omelets, scrambled eggs, carrots, spinach, squash,eggplant, cabbage, lima beans, mushrooms, peas, and tomatoes; baked or broiled fish, fish recipes and fish chowders, all kinds of meat, chicken, duck goose, gravies, fish sauces, biscuits, muffins

MINTS use in: green pea soups, split pea soups, fruit salads, teas, iced drinks, , green beans, new peas, baked or broiled fish, lamb, veal, mint sauces, mint jellies, wine vinegar, mint syrups, sherbets

ONION use for all dishes except sweets. Use in soups, stews, salad, egg dishes, fish, poultry, meat and all vegetables, some breads.

OREGANO use in: appetizers spreads, canapes, onion soup, all stews, seafood salads, aspics, omelets, spicy cheese, onions, peas, baked beans, shellfish, all kinds of meats, game, hare, venison, cream sauces, tomato sauces, meat-pie crusts, breads

PARSLEY use in: all kinds of appetizers, all kinds of soups and stews, all kinds of salads, vegetable cocktails, omelets, cheeses, all kinds of vegetables, all kinds of fish and seafood, all kinds of meat, stuffing, tartar sauce, butter sauces, breads, rolls

ROSEMARY use in : cheese appetizers and dips, all kinds of soups ( chicken soup, pea soup) and stews, chicken salads, seafood salads, vegetable juices, omelets, sharp cheese, potatoes, mushrooms, salmon, haddock, cod, all kinds of meats and poultry, wild game, stuffing, gravies, breads, rolls, biscuits

SAGE use in : cheese dips appetizers, cream soups, chowders, sharp cheese, cottage cheese, eggplant, Lima beans, baked or broiled fish, meat loaf, roasts, chicken, turkey, game, stuffing, brown sauce, muffins, breads

SAVORY use in : cheese dips and appetizers, bean soups, chowders, aspics, green salads, vegetable cocktails, deviled eggs, omelets, green beans, sauerkraut, salt water fish, all kinds of meat, chicken, duck,, turkey, fish sauces, cream sauce, meat-pie crusts

TARRAGON use in: all kinds of appetizers, chicken soup, mushroom soup, all kinds of salads, vegetable cocktails, omelets, cream cheese, asparagus, all fish, steaks, chicken, duck turkey, cream sauce, Hollandaise

THYME use in : shrimp dips, vegetable soup and stews, all other types of stews, tomato aspic, lemon tea, cottage cheese, cream cheese, beans, onions, potatoes, all kinds of fish, roasts, meat loaf, ham, stuffing, turkey, all tomato sauces, breads, rolls.

TURMERIC use as a cheap saffron substitute for its bright yellow color. Good in curries, salads, dressings and mustard; with seafood, fish, poultry and meat; in rice dishes; and with eggs

WATERCRESS use liberally in salads, chicken salad, bean salad, potato salad, and coleslaw; in tomato juice, soups and egg dishes; with cottage cheese; and in herb butters.


More Herbs and Food Combinations


Here are some more herbs AND spices that go good with certain foods.


For those of you that are artistic, this would make a beautiful gift for someone who likes to cook and bake, or is new at cooking and baking. I had a friend who copied something like this by hand in calligraphy, on a long sheet of paper, dyed the paper some pretty color and made colored scroll work all around the edges, and made a small frame all around and made it so that it could be hung on the wall. She also said a few words of friendship and put her name on the bottom and DATED it. It was a very personalized gift. See what you can do!!


cumin, garlic, onions, parsley, sage, savory, thyme


basil, cloves, dill, marjoram, mints, savory, thyme


basil, bay leaf, chili pepper, cumin, garlic, ginger, marjoram, onions, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, savory, tarragon, thyme


anise, basil, caraway, cardamom, cinnamon, coriander, cumin, dill, garlic, onions, oregano, parsley, poppy seeds, rosemary, sage, sesame seeds, thyme


basil, dill, garlic, nutmeg, oregano


basil, caraway, cayenne pepper, dill, marjoram, savory


basil, chervil, chives, cinnamon, cloves, cumin, dill, ginger, marjoram, mint, parsley, savory


basil, cumin, dill, garlic, marjoram, parsley, rosemary, savory, tarragon


basil, chervil, chives, coriander, curry powder, dill, garlic, marjoram, parsley, sage, tarragon, thyme


allspice, basil, bay leaf, cinnamon, curry powder, dill, garlic, ginger, mace, marjoram, nutmeg, onions, paprika, parsley, rosemary,, saffron, sage, savory, thyme


basil, chives, cinnamon, curry powder, dill, paprika, thyme


basil, cinnamon, garlic, marjoram, onions, oregano, parsley, savory, thyme


basil, chervil, chives, coriander, curry powder, dill, fennel, marjoram, oregano, paprika, parsley, rosemary, sage, savory, tarragon, thyme


basil, chives, curry powder, dill, garlic, ginger, marjoram, oregano, parley, sage, savory, tarragon, thyme


anise, cinnamon . Cloves, ginger, mace, mints, nutmeg, rosemary


basil, bay leaf, cinnamon, coriander, cumin, curry powder, dill, garlic, ginger, mints, onions, parsley, rosemary, tarragon, thyme


coriander, marjoram, oregano, tarragon, thyme


basil, curry powder, dill, marjoram, parsley, thyme


caraway, chives, dill, marjoram, oregano, paprika, parsley, rosemary, tarragon, thyme


basil, chervil chives, coriander, dill, garlic, marjoram,, mints, oregano, parsley, rosemary, tarragon, thyme


basil, bay leaf, chives, dill, garlic, marjoram, onions, parsley, rosemary, sage, savory, thyme


allspice, basil,, chives, nutmeg, rosemary


allspice, basil, cinnamon, cloves, dill, marjoram, nutmeg, rosemary, savory


garlic, marjoram, parsley, onions, rosemary, sage, thyme


basil, bay leaf, chives, garlic, oregano, parsley, rosemary, savory, tarragon, thyme


basil, garlic, marjoram, onions, rosemary, saffron , sage, savory, tarragon, thyme


basil, bay leaf, chervil, marjoram, onions, parsley, rosemary, savory, thyme

I'll be doing another blog starting with the herb or spice and what goes good with it.




Now that winter is upon most of us, many of us might feel like spending more time in the kitchen making food from scratch. I get real tired , real fast, of the ho hum pancake recipes I see in the cookbooks and found this one years ago. I tried it and thought it had a lot more going for it than most pancakes do. Sooo, thought you might like to try it as well. ENJOY!


1 ¼ cup rolled oats

¾ cup white flour, sifted

½ cup whole wheat flour (I sift mine)

1 tbls baking powder

2 slightly beaten eggs

2 ¼ cups buttermilk

2 tbls oil

2 tbls honey

1 teas vanilla

MAPEL PEAR SAUCE (recipe to follow)

In a large bowl combine the oats, flours, baking powder. Make a well in the center of the mixture; set aside.

In a medium bowl combine the eggs, buttermilk, oil, honey and vanilla. Add to the flour mixture

Stir just til moistened. Cover batter, allow to stand at room temperature for 15 to 20 minutes.


Peel and core 4 LARGE PEARS; cut pears into ¼ inch slices. Toss with 1 tablespoon LEMON JUICE; set aside.

In a large heavy saucepan, combine ½ cup APPLE JUICE, ½ cup MAPLE SYRUP; 3 inches of STICK CINNAMON.

Bring to boiling. Add PEAR SLICES; reduce heat. Simmer, uncovered, for 3 to 5 minutes or til pears are tender.

Stir together 2 tablespoon APPLE JUICE AND 1 tablespoon CORNSTARCH;

stir into pear mixture along with ¼ cup CRANBERRIES.

Cook and stir til bubbly.

Cook and stir for 2 more minutes.

Remove from heat; but keep warm. Discard cinnamon.

Makes about 2 ½ cups sauce

Then continue with making pancakes;

Stir the batter a little. Heat your pan that you are using to make the pancakes in. Pour just a little oil to cover the bottom of the pan and add your batter, the way you normally do to make pancakes.

When pancakes are done, serve and pass the sauce for individual use.

This recipe should make about 16 pancakes.


I thought I might share with you some info on FISH and SHELLFISH that I have collected through the years...



COD Atlantic cod and Pacific cod have lean, firm white flesh.

FISH THAT MAY BE SUBSTITUTED: haddock, whiting (silver hake), pollock

halibut; scrod

HALIBUT INTERCHANGEABLE WITH petrale sole; pompano; swordfish; cod

FLATFISH flounders and halibuts. Some flatfish are called sole.

Flatfish have lean, delicately flavored white flesh.

FISH THAT MAY BE SUBSTITUTED: summer flounder (fluke); yellowtail flounder;

petrale, lemon, gray and rex soles; halibut; turbot

MACKEREL a/k/a BONITO, WAHOO. Mackerel has both dark and light fatty

flesh. King mackerel is stronger flavored and fattier than Spanish mackerel.

FISH THAT MAY BE SUBSTITUTED: wahoo; bullet, chub, king, spanish macerels;

tunas; mullet

GOOSEFISH a/k/a MONKFISH OR ANGLER FISH. Has firm, white flesh that

tastes like lobster. With goosefish only the tail section is edible.


RED SNAPPER Flavorful, lean, juicy white flesh.

FISH THAT MAY BE SUBSTITUTED: other varieties of snapper on the Pacific

Coast, or rock fishes

SALMON A/K/A PINK, CHUM, SOCKEYE AND ATLANTIC SALMONS have fatty, distinctive-flavored firm flesh that ranges in color from white to deep coral.


SEA BASS Lean, firm, white flesh.

FISH THAT MAY BE SUBSTITUTED: black sea bass; sand perch; groupers; scamp;

sand bass; striped bass. INTERCHANGEABLE WITH: tuna; halibut; salmon;

haddock ; sea trout

SHARK a/k/a MAKO It has texture, color and taste similar to those of

swordfish. INTERCHANGEABLE W/ bluefin tuna, albacore, swordfish, catfish

FISH THAT MAY BE SUBSTITUTED: porbeagle; blue sharks

SWORDFISH Coarse-textured, rich, delicately flavored.


TROUT A/K/A BROOK, RAINBOW; HATCHERY-BRED. Light meat, firm flesh, moderately fatty. INTERCHANGEABLE WITH red snapper; bluefish; perch

FISH THAT MAY BE SUBSTIUTED OR INTERCHANGED: brook, rainbow, hatchery bred

TUNA Several varieties. All have fatty, full flavored, light or dark flesh.



CRAB A/K/A HARD SHELL CRABS; BLUE, ROCK, DUNGENESS. Meat is delicate and moderately sweet.

Available live, fresh, frozen or cooked

LOBSTER Firm, rich tasting, non fatty succulent flesh

Available whole, live, cooked or frozen


Available fresh, cooked, frozen, whole, in shell or shelled


AVAILABLE whole or shucked, fresh or frozen

MUSSELS Mollusks Tender, sweet flesh

Available live

OYSTERS tender flesh, with delicate flavor.

Available year round, whole or shucked, fresh or frozen

SCALLOPS Bay and Sea. Both are tender, with delicately flavored ivory flesh.

AVAILABLE shucked, fresh or frozen

SQUID delicately flavored, firm (almost chewy) white flesh

Available whole or cut into pieces fresh or frozen


With a delicate texture fish when grilling with a perforated grill rack,

use disposable aluminum pans, the Nordic ware fish boat or heavy aluminum

foil so that the delicate fish dose not flake and fall between the grill

grates onto the fire.




This is a good way to preserve your fish if you cannot eat the fish right away. Even if you have to freeze them.

1/4 cup lemon juice

1 3/4 cup water

one 1 oz pkg unflavored gelatin

whole trout, gutted and cleaned

in small saucepan, combine lemon juice & water. Remove 1/2 cup

of the mixture and set aside. Bring the remaining lemon juice

mixture in the saucepan to boil. Sprinkle gelatin over the reserved

1/2 cup of lemon water til it softens. When gelatin has softened,

whisk it into the boiling lemon juice mixture & remove from heat.

Whisk til gelatin has dissolved & set saucepan aside to cool.

Dip each cleaned fish into lemon juice/gelatin mixture, then wrap

individually in plastic wrap & place in resealable plastic bags and freeze.

Whole trout treated in this way can be frozen for up to a year



SPECIAL NOTE: To test doneness ; carefully slide a sharp paring knife between the layers of the fish meat, then turn it slightly to get a good look inside. If the meat still looks translucent in the middle, give it another minute or two. You DON'T want the fish to flake, it will be tough, dry and chewy. When you do the knife test, press on it w/your finger & make a mental note of how firm it is. That's the firmness you want next

time. Use a timer, and then you won't ever have to do it w/the knife again!




I thought that I might like to share with you some herb ideas that go with foods. I keep a paper in my spice and herb drawer to match foods with. Maybe some of you might enjoy a list to look quickly at to see what herbs you can use to go with what foods your preparing:



CHICKEN                  anise,   basil, bay leaf, chives,  cinnamon, cumin, dill, fenugreek, garlic, ginger, marjoram, onion, oregano, parsley, rosemary, saffron, sage,  tarragon, thyme


TURKEY                       basil, garlic, marjoram, onion, oregano, parsley, rosemary, saffron, sage, savory, tarragon, thyme


DUCK                        chervil, ginger, thyme,



BEEF                basil, bay, caraway, cumin, fenugreek, garlic, ginger, marjoram, onion, oregano, parsley,    rosemary, sage, savory, shallot, tarragon,   thyme


HAMBURGER           cayenne pepper, oregano, paprika, thyme


STEAK                        chives, garlic, rosemary, thyme


LAMB                       basil, bay, cinnamon, coriander, cumin, dill, garlic, lemon balm, mint, marjoram,  onion, parsley, rosemary, saffron, sage, savory, tarragon, thyme


HAM                           cinnamon, ginger, sage


PORK                    anise, basil, bay, caraway, cardamom, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel, garlic, ginger, oregano, rosemary, saffron sage,   tarragon, thyme





             Anise, basil, caraway, cayenne pepper, chervil, chives, coriander,  dill, fennel, marjoram, oregano, parsley, rosemary, saffron, sage,  savory, shallot, sorrel, tarragon, thyme


FRITTATAS         black pepper, rosemary, thyme,


OMELETS:       chervil,   oregano,   parsley,



   QUICHES            basil, dill, marjoram,


    SOUFFLES        basil, cayenne, chives





Basil, fennel, lovage, saffron, tarragon, thyme







                   basil, caraway, chervil, chives, cumin seed, dill, lovage, marjoram, mints, parsley, poppy seeds, sage, savory, sesame seed, shallot, tarragon, thyme






                  basil, bay, calendula, caraway, chervil, chives, cumin, dill , fennel, lovage, marjoram, mints, parsley, rosemary, sage, savory, sorrel, tarragon, thyme, lemon thyme





  ASPARAGUS:          chives, lemon balm, parsley, rosemary, sage, savory, tarragon, thyme,


 FRESH BEANS:         basil, caraway, cloves, dill, marjoram, mint, oregano, rosemary, sage, savory, thyme


  BROCCOLI :             basil, curry powder, dill, garlic, lemon balm, marjoram, oregano, tarragon,  thyme


CARROTS:             anise, basil, chervil, chives, cinnamon, cloves, cumin, dill, ginger, marjoram, mint, parsley, sage, savory, tarragon, thyme


CAULIFLOWER:     basil, caraway, chives, cumin, curry powder, dill, garlic, marjoram, parsley, rosemary, savory, tarragon


EGGPLANT:             basil, cinnamon,   curry powder,   dill, garlic, marjoram, mint, onion,   oregano, parsley, sage, savory, rosemary, thyme 


MUSHROOMS          black pepper, coriander, marjoram, oregano, rosemary, tarragon, thyme


ONION:                     chives, rosemary, sage, savory


PARSNIPS               basil, dill, marjoram, parsley, savory, thyme


PEAS                           basil, caraway, chervil, chives, mint, rosemary, savory, tarragon, thyme


POTATOES                 basil, caraway, chives, coriander, dill, fennel, garlic, lovage, marjoram, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, tarragon, thyme


SPINACH                   anise, basil, black pepper, caraway seed,  chervil, chives, cinnamon, dill, garlic, parsley , rosemary, thyme  ,


SQUASH           basil, caraway, cardamom, clove, ginger, marjoram, dill, oregano, rosemary, sage, savory



TOMATOES                basil, bay leaf, black pepper, chives, coriander, dill,  garlic, lovage, marjoram, oregano, parsley,  rosemary, sage, savory, tarragon, thyme


ZUCCHINI                 basil, dill, tarragon, thyme






MAYONNAISE          basil, curry powder, parsley, tarragon


HOLLANDAISE       cayenne, paprika


COCKTAIL               celery seeds, chives, parsley


CHEESE        cayenne, curry powder, dry mustard, paprika


 BUTTER        basil, chives, oregano, tarragon, thyme


BEARNAISE      chervil, parsley, tarragon


BARBECUE       cayenne, chili powder, cumin, paprika






TROUT               basil, chives, rosemary, sage, tarragon


SHRIMP             cayenne, garlic, parsley, oregano


SHELLFISH      black pepper, chives, garlic, and thyme


SALMON         chervil, dill, parsley


LOBSTER           parsley, tarragon, thyme


CRAB MEAT      chives, marjoram


COD             parsley, tarragon, thyme





DUCK                chervil, cinnamon, coriander    cumin seeds,   dill weed, fennel seeds, ginger,   juniper berries, lemon zest, marjoram, paprika, rosemary, saffron, sage, tarragon, thyme,    turmeric


GOOSE                    aniseed,   bay leaf, caraway seeds, cinnamon, cayenne, coriander, garlic, ginger,  juniper berries, lemon zest,  minced meat, onion, sage,  thyme



PHEASANT         bay leaf, cayenne, cloves, garlic, juniper berries, leeks, lemon grass, onion,     black and white and green peppercorns,       paprika,    rosemary, sage, thyme


GROUSE                mushrooms, nutmeg, shallots, thyme,


PARTRIDGE/ QUAIL:    bay leaf, cardamoms, cinnamon, chili peppers,   cayenne pepper, coriander,  cumin,  garlic, garam masala,  ginger, lemon zest,  mint, nutmeg, onion,  parsley, ground saffron,  sage,   thyme


DEER          allspice ,  cardamom,  ground cumin,  cinnamon, cayenne pepper, cloves, chili powder,  coriander leaves,  dill,    garlic,    ginger,    juniper berries, lemon,  nutmeg, onion,   oregano,   parsley,  rosemary, star anise, thyme,


WILD BOAR           cayenne pepper, coriander leaves, cloves, cinnamon, garlic,      ginger, juniper berries,      lemon, onion,   red chills, rosemary, tarragon, 


RABBIT/HARE          bouquet garni (parsley, bay leaf, celery leaves, marjoram, lemon zest),    cinnamon, cloves, garlic, ginger, juniper berries, nutmeg,   onion,   parsley, rosemary, saffron, tarragon,  thyme 







I see a lot on the web where Queen of the Meadow is being used interchangeably with Meadow Sweet. Even some of my herb books do this. For instance the famous Mrs. Grieves in A Modern Herbal does not appear to distinguish one from the other. There are many wanna be herbalist, but are not willing to do their homework before selling their products, and also not taking herbalism as seriously as they should. They just want to make that sale. Here is where knowing the Latin word comes in handy and helps us so that we don't make a serious mistake either on our own or when we purchase a certain herb from another herbalist.

In this blog, I'm going to give

the name of the herb,

it's Latin name and Family,

a list of other names the herb is known as;

a description of what the plant looks like,

what the leaves look like

what the flowers look like.

Also, I will give the growing situation that each plant thrives in,

and finally what each herb is used for.


QUEEN OF THE MEADOW Latin name is Eupatorium Purpureum of the Aster Family

Queen of the Meadow is also known as Joe Pye weed, Gravel Root; Trumpet Weed and Purple Boneset.

QUEEN OF THE MEADOW grows to 7 feet tall, very graceful. The stem is rigid, generally hollow, tinged with purple above the nodes, bearing oblong lanceolate vanilla scented, roughish leaves, in whorls of 2 -5 leaves about 10 inches long. Flowers are pinkish purple, can be creamy white, but all I've ever seen here in North Carolina is pinkish purple. The flowers are arranged in clusters of 5 to 10 on very numerous dense terminal compound cormbs. Appearing late summer to mid autumn. Prefers rich calcerous woodland soils, either dry or moist.

QUEEN OF THE MEADOW use mainly the root and is used for tonic, stimulant, antilithic, renal or urinary calculi, gout and rheumatism. You drink this cold and one mouthful at a time and 1 cup during the entire day. Do not take this as a regular drink. Take one cup of tea only every two or three days and only for one week at a time, with about 3 weeks in between before taking another cup of tea. This is a very strong herb.

The flowers are used as a diuretic and tonic.  The leaves help repel insects such as  mosquitos and other flying insects. One could  use the leaves mixed in candle wax to make an insect repellant candle for outdoor use.

BONESET Latin name is Eupatorium perfoliatum L compositae notice the difference, Perfoliatum is not the same as Purpureum. They are close relatives and share similar chemical constituents.

BONESET grows to 4 feet tall and has a pubescent stem which is stout and cylindrical, branched above, bearing lanceolate leaves united at the base around the stem; dark and shiny green above, cotton like beneath and fine toothed. Inflorescence of 10-16 small white or rarely, blue flowers on a dense corymbose cyme.( a flat topped cluster of flowers with the flower stalks proportionately longer lower down the stem. An inflorescence in which the primary axis bears a single terminal flower that develops first, the system being continued by the axes of secondary and higher orders each with a flower.)Appears in late summer to mid autumn; prefers open, marshy regions.

BONESET: use the flowers and is used for colds and fevers, and is taken as a hot infusion.

MEADOWSWEET Latin name is Filipendula ulmaria Meadow sweet leaves are compound with toothed leaflets that are green above, woolly white below. Stalks 4 -6 ft tall are topped with fluffy clusters of sweetly fragrant white flowers. Meadow sweet needs a damp, rich soil in partial shade in order grow well.

MEADOW SWEET is used for treating colds, dyspepsia, flatulence, indigestion, sore throat, It is from Meadow sweet that that salicylic acid was first discovered in 1839 and from which Aspirin was later synthesized. Meadow sweet is also used to reduce inflammation and to relieve cold and flu symptoms, including fever and pain.

QUEEN OF THE PRAIRES (Fillipendula rubra is of the Rose , Rosaceae family) The foliage is dark green pinnately compound leaves with jagged leaflets. Grows to a height of 6 to 8 feet. The flowers are fluffy clusters of pink, like pink cotton candy. Blooms for weeks in July or August. Prefers moist soil , likes full or part sun, prefers fertile, organic soil and steady moisture. Will not grow well in dry soil.

Part used is the roots as an astringent to stop bleeding, diarrhea or dysentery. Leaf is used as an antacid.

Notice the difference in 1) height 2) stem 3) the way the leaves are and look 5) the color of the flowers and 6) one has a single flower and the other has clusters of flowers




Would you like to make some of your own spice blends from your own kitchen? Here are a few that I blend in my kitchen and I've included a few recipes or what to do with the spice blends.  All the blends are easy to use.  I store the spice mixtures in a small baby food jar or a 4 oz jam/jelly jar with lids.



2 tablespoons ground cinnamon

2 teaspoons ground ginger

1 teaspoons ground cloves

1 teaspoon ground nutmeg

1 teaspoons ground allspice

yield: about ½ cup

mix to blend and store in a small jar away from heat and in a cool spot.



one 8 ounce jar of dry roasted peanuts

½ cup pecans

½ cup walnut halves

1 egg, lightly beaten

1 teaspoon water

½ cup sugar


¾ teaspoon of sea salt (if you have it, otherwise just use regular or none, if you prefer)

Combine the nuts. Mix together the egg and water, and toss with the nut mixture. Combine the sugar, PUMPKIN PIE SPICE BLEND, and salt, and toss that with the nuts until they are well coated. Spread nuts in a single layer on a lightly greased cookie sheet. Bake at 300 for 20-25 minutes. Break up any large clusters and allow to cool.

This can make a great gift! Simply put the SPICED NUTS in a decorative jar and add ribbon, cards, or other ideas.


2 tablespoons ground cinnamon

1 tablespoon lemon zest

1 tablespoon ground cloves

1 ½ teaspoons ground ginger

1 ½ teaspoons ground nutmeg

simply mix the ingredients and use 1 teaspoon of SPICY APPLE PIE BLEND per 6 cups of thinly sliced tart apples.


combine together:

1 /4 cup firmly packed brown sugar

2 tablespoons softened butter

1 tablespoon flour


Sprinkle over muffin batter in baking pan and bake as directed.

This is a tasty treat for plain muffins, applesauce muffins, pumpkin muffins, or apple cinnamon muffins



2 tablespoons mustard seed
1 tablespoon whole allspice
2 teaspoons black peppercorns
2 teaspoons whole cloves
1 teaspoon ground ginger
1 teaspoon hot red pepper flakes
2 small bay leaves, broken up
2 inch piece of cinnamon stick, cracked in small pieces
1 teaspoon cardamom

Mix ingredients together and store in an airtight container.



1 cup granulated sugar
1 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
1/4 teaspoon ground cloves
1/4 teaspoon allspice

Combine all ingredients in small bowl and toss with fork or spoon to blend thoroughly. Pour into storage container, cover tightly and store in a cool place. Keeps indefinitely.

Use in hot or cold tea, coffee or chocolate. Sprinkle on plain cakes, ice cream or fruit.



2 tablespoons freshly ground black pepper
1 tablespoon ground coriander
1 tablespoon ground cloves
1/2 teaspoon ground cardamom
1 teaspoon freshly ground nutmeg, more as desired
1 pinch ground cinnamon

Mix together well. Store in dark glass bottle.

This is great with rice, grilled veggies or veggie stews



2 tablespoons dry mustard
2 tablespoons grated orange peel, dried
1 1/2 tablespoon allspice
1 1/2 tablespoon nutmeg
1 1/2 tablespoon ginger
2 teaspoons salt
2 teaspoons black pepper
2 teaspoons cayenne pepper

Blend all ingredients. Use to season beef, pork or vegetable dishes.


6 tablespoons ground allspice

3 teaspoons ground black pepper

1 ½ teaspoons ground nutmeg

1 ½ teaspoon ground cinnamon

½ teaspoon lemon zest

mix thoroughly.

Yields ½ cup

    To make rub:

    combine 2 ¾ tablespoons of the SPICY JAMAICAN BLEND

    with 1 Jalapeno pepper, cored, seeded and chopped,

    1 tablespoon freshly grated ginger,

    2 cloves garlic (crushed) and

    2 tablespoons vegetable oil.

    Mix all ingredients well, and rub onto fish, beef., lamb, or pork.

    Grill until done.

    Jalapeno pepper may be increased or decreased according to taste.


1 tablespoon orange zest

1 tablespoon ground nutmeg

1 tables ground cloves

1 tables ground ginger

2 tablespoons ground cinnamon

mix thoroughly yield: about 1/3 cup

Suggestions for use:

stir ALL ROUND SWEET SPICY BLEND into ice cream,yogurt, fruit, oatmeal

Add 2 to 3 tablespoons to cake or quick bread batters for a spicy flavor.


6 teaspoons ground coriander

5 teaspoons ground cinnamon

4 teaspoons ground allspice

2 teaspoon ground ginger

1 teaspoon ground cloves

Mix all spices thoroughly and keep in airtight container away from heat.

In fact, you could add a whole vanilla bean that's been slit so that the flavors blend smoothly

Use this MIXED SPICE BLEND the next time you make apple cake. It's great!

Use this SPICE BLEND whenever a recipe calls for mixed spices for apple pie, fruit cake, baked fruits, spice cookies, tea breads. Yields about ½ cup


2 cinnamon sticks

12 whole cloves

7 whole allspice berries

2 star anise

1 tablespoon orange zest

to make the cider spice, add the spices to 1 quart of sweet cider. Bring to a boil in a glass, stainless, enamel pan. Strain, serve hot, garnish with orange slices.

Serves 5


½ cup sugar

1 tablespoon flour

¼ cup cocoa

¼ teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon ground cinnamon

¾ teaspoon ground cloves

1/8 teaspoon ground allspice

blend all ingredients thoroughly. Yield ¾ cup enough to make 6 servings

To make the hot chocolate: add ¾ mix to 2 cups water and simmer for 4 minutes. Stir in 6 cups milk and reheat. Add 1 teaspoon vanilla, whip, and serve




Here's a handy list in alphabetical order; of spices and what to use them in. Incidentally; always keep your spices as cool (but not refrigerated) as possible.

ALLSPICE WHOLE allspice is used in Caribbean soups;as well as other types of soups; stews; pot roasts; sauerbraten; marinades; and in pouching, boiling or steaming fish or shellfish; savory sauces; pickled beets; pickles; preserves; stewed fruit; beverages

GROUND ALLSPICE is used in sweet breads; chutneys; curries; spice cakes; puddings; plum pudding; mincemeat; fruit desserts; fruit pies; cookies; candy; frosting; meat loaf; pot roast; chili sauce; ketchup; tomato sauce; spaghetti sauce; barbecue sauce; French dressing; soups; pickled eggs; sweet potatoes and squash.



1/8 to ¼ teaspoons in 2 cups sweet potatoes.

1 teaspoon in 1 ½ to 2 cups graham cracker crumbs for pie crust.

½ teaspoon to 1 inch thick slice ham

1/8 teaspoon to 1 pound ground beef


3 for every 3 cups of pea soup

4 to 6 for each 2 pounds of fish when poaching

ANISE SEEDS For culinary purposes anise seed has wide ranging applications. It is popular in many European confections. The French like it with carrots. Anise is frequently used in Scandinavian breads; East Indian curries; and Hispanic stews. The seed enhances cooked fruit dishes; eggs and cheese; spinach and many baked goods. Cinnamon and bay leaves complement the taste of anise.

For the best flavor buy whole seeds and crush them just before using. If you don't have a spice grinder this can be accomplished with a mortar and pestle, or you might break them with a rolling pin.

Anise whole or crushed may be used in cakes; cookies; candy; applesauce; fruit pies;

fruit salads; stewed fruits; salad dressings; appetizers; baked apples; sweet breads; as well as rye breads; biscuits and confectionery; pickles; sausage; cheese; beef stew; seafood; chowders; and beverages.

Anise is used in much the same way as fennel to flavor fish; poultry; soups and root vegetable dishes. Numerous alcoholic drinks and cordials are flavored with aniseed; particularly French pastis; Pernod and Ricard; Greek ouzo; Spanish ojen; Turkish raki; Italian anesone; Arab arrak and Egyptian kibib.


½ to 1 teaspoons ; crushed in baked or stewed applesauce

1/4 to ½ teaspoons ; crushed; in 2 tablespoons butter for basting one pound of fish

¼ to ½ teaspoon in 8 oz package of cream cheese for spread for canapes

CARDAMOM SEEDS can be bought ground or in the pod; to use; break the pods to free the seeds; then crush the seeds.

Cardamom is a principal spice in Danish pastry. Also use in coffee cakes; sweet breads; flat breads; fruit salad dressings; fruit salads; fruit pies; fruit soups; curry powder; curry dishes; cookies; cakes; gingerbread; pickles; pickling spice; custards; puddings; rice pudding ; sweet potatoes; squash; baked beans; barbecue sauce; honey chutneys; grape jelly; hot spiced wines and punch.



¼ teaspoon in blueberry muffin mix

1/8 teaspoon to 4 cups crushed strawberry, peaches or raspberries

1/8 teaspoon to egg whites for meringue

1/8 teaspoon to 2 cups baked beans


2 to 4 cardamoms to a 4 pound roast for sauerbraten

2 to 3 cardamoms in 1 quart of mulled wine

4 to 6 cardamoms in 6 cups Glogg

6 to 8 cardamoms in 2 gallons of fruit punch

CINNAMON Whole cinnamon is used in fruit compotes; stewed prunes; apricots and other dried fruits; apple dishes; hot chocolate; mulled wine and as stirrers for beverages.

Ground cinnamon is used in preparing cinnamon toast; sweet breads; plum pudding; cakes; muffins; fruit cake; spice cake; apple pie; apple dumplings; apple sauce; apple butter; baked apples; fruit salads; puddings; custards; ice cream; doughnuts; cinnamon rolls; jams; preserves; spiced nuts; chocolate fudge; sweet potatoes; squash; pumpkin soups and pies; winter squash dishes; meat soups; poultry rub; pilafs; curries; ham glaze; ham; pork; lamb roast; lamb or beef stews; creamed chicken; fruit punches; Sprinkle over cakes; cookies; hot cereals; eggnog; milk shakes; custards; broiled grapefruit bread and tapioca puddings.


Whole cloves are used to stud ham; fruit; fruit peels; onions or glazed pork or beef. Also used in Pot roast; marinades; pickling; soups; spiced tongue and to make pomander balls

Ground cloves is used in sweet breads; muffins; spice cakes; fruit cakes; gingerbread; frosting; plum pudding cookies; breads; fruit salads; cooked fruit; spiced nuts; meringues; mincemeat; fruit pies; pickling; ketchup; chili sauce; beef stew; pot roast; Indian curries and chutneys; rice dishes; sweet potatoes; squash; green vegetables; tomatoes; glazes; winter squash soups and purees; mulled drinks.



1/8 to ¼ teaspoons to 4 cups rhubarb

¾ teaspoon to 6 pound pork roast

¼ teaspoon in mincemeat or fruit pies

½ to 1 teaspoon in recipe yielding 12 to 14 pounds fruit cake


4 to 12 when cooking 1 cup rice

1/ to 2 for each cup hot or iced tea or mulled wine

6 to 8 in marinade for 4 pounds meat


The Whole GINGER is used in pickling; syrups; beverages; marinades; stewed fruit; teriyaki sauce; preserves; teas and ginger beer.

GROUND GINGER is used in pumpkin pie;cakes; gingerbread; bread; ginger toast; cookies; fruits: steamed baked or stewed fruits; fruit pies and salads; salad dressings; puddings; custards; whipped cream; pickles; chutney; conserves; curries; iced cream; appetizers; rice; soups; chicken and other poultry;Oriental dishes; lamb; pork; beef; veal; venison; fish; nearly all vegetables; sweet potatoes; carrots;and punch


Works well with other spices.


¼ to 2 teaspoons for 1 ½ pounds pork

¼ teaspoons to 2 cups sliced carrots

¼ teaspoon to 3 cups mixed fruit

¼ to 1 teaspoon to 2 cups sweet potatoes

¼ teaspoons to bread puddings and rice

1/8 to ¼ teaspoons to 2 egg whites for meringues

MACE sauces for vegetables; puddings; cakes; muffins; sweet breads; and fruity desserts. Mace is the outer covering of the nutmeg seed.

Mace and Nutmeg are the only two spices found naturally on the same plant.

Mace has a variety of uses and can be substituted for Nutmeg in recipes.

Use Mace in preparing pound cake spice cake; devil's food cake; gingerbread; doughnuts; coffee cakes; danish pastries; frosting;chiffon custard or refrigerator pies; breads; puddings; custards; fruit; apple dishes; waffles; pancakes; muffins;cream cheese spreads for fruit and nut breads; candy; vegetable; fruit salads; fruit salad dressings; glazes; soups; pork; beef ;lamb; chicken fish sauces; hot chocolate; punches


¼ teaspoon in stewing 2 cups dried apricots

1 teaspoon in 2 cups waffle mix or recipe using 2 cups flour

1/8 teaspoon in 4 cups creamed chicken or tuna

1/8 teaspoon in 2 cups white sauce

1/8 to ¼ teaspoon in a pound cake recipe or mix


Ground Nutmeg or the freshly grated whole Nutmeg may be sprinkled over hot and cold milk drinks; eggnog; fruits; fruit salads ; puddings; vegetable and broccoli soups; and used to season meats; poultry; sea food; vegetables and sauces.

Also use in cakes; cookies; doughnuts; pies; pastries; sweet breads; muffins; waffles; pancakes and coffee cake; rice dishes and poultry marinades.


½ to 1 teaspoon for two crust pastry

¼ teaspoon in 2 cups spinach; mixed veggies; sliced carrots

1/8 to ¾ teaspoon in vanilla pudding mix or recipe using 2 cups milk

¼ teaspoon in about 2 cups batter for muffins; coffee cakes and waffles.

½ teas in chocolate frosting for 2 cake layers

1/8 to ¼ teaspoon in 1 cup heavy cream; whipped or 1 cup powdered sugar for a glaze

1/8 teaspoon in 4 cups creamed chicken or tuna

1/8 teaspoon for 1 pound beef

one whole Nutmeg; grated; equals 2 to 3 teaspoons ground Nutmeg.

STAR ANISE Chinese dishes; teas; and baked goods; an ingredient in Chinese five spice powder.

star anise and aniseed (or anise) are not related botanically.

Star anise plays a key role in the slow cooked dishes that characterize Eastern Chinese cuisine. Its licorice flavor enhances red cooked dishes; as well as eggs simmered in black tea.

One of the fundamental components of Chinese five-spice powder; star anise is popular in Chinese "red cooking"; where meat (often beef or pork) is turned a deep red-brown color by being braised in a dark soy sauce flavored broth. It's equally delicious in roasted duck or risotto; peach crumble or pea soup; iced tea or ice cream; cookies or chai.


Star anise is used in the East as aniseed is in the West. Apart from its use in sweetmeats and confectionery; where sweeteners must be added, it contributes to meat and poultry dishes, combining especially well with pork and duck. In Chinese red cooking, where the ingredients are simmered for a lengthy period in dark soy sauce; star anise is nearly always added to beef and chicken dishes. Chinese stocks and soups very often contain the spice. It flavors marbled eggs; a decorative Chinese hors d’oeuvre or snack. Mandarins with jaded palates chew the whole dried fruit habitually as a post-prandial digestant and breath sweetener - an oriental comfit. In the West; star anise is added in fruit compotes and jams; and in the manufacture of anise-flavored liqueurs; the best known being anisette.

Outside of China; star anise is featured in several of Vietnam's signature dishes; such as Pho Bo soup. It is also the secret ingredient in many Indian stews and curries. Star anise can replace regular anise in western recipes.

Most often; star anise is added to a recipe whole; to be steeped in liquids and then removed before the conclusion of the recipe


Star anise comes from the star-shaped flower of a small evergreen tree. Star anise has the scientific name Illicium verum and is an evergreen tree native to China. The tree can grow up to 40 feet tall with clusters of leathery leaves and bell-shaped pink-to-red or greenish-yellow flowers. The fruit that follows is made up of eight woody pods joined in a star shape. Each pod has one licorice-flavored seed.

It is used in Chinese and Indian cooking; as an ingredient in 5-spice powder and garam masala.

Star anise tea has been used to treat rheumatism.

Anise seed comes from the flowering anise plant. The seeds are sweet and licorice-like in flavor; resembling fennel seeds.

Anise; scientific name Pimpinella anisum L. is a annual herb native to the Mediterranean and Egypt and can be grown in the United States as a non-invasive alternative to fennel. The plant grows 2 feet tall and produces parsley-like lower leaves and lacy upper leaves and umbrella-like white flowers. The 1/6-inch oval seeds are slightly curved and produced in individual pods.

Anise is said to have a better flavor than Star Anise; and the seeds are pressed into oil and used as flavoring in licorice and other food, as the seeds are not attractive in food products. The chopped leaves may also be used as flavoring.

anise is used in perfumes and soaps and to create the liquor anisett

TURMERIC a major ingredient in Curry Powder and prepared mustard. Turmeric is used in egg dishes; rice dishes; breads;soups; noodles and in preparing chicken and fish; pickles; chow-chow; cream sauces; salad dressings; relish; and mayonnaise.


1/8 teaspoon in 6 stuffed or scrambled eggs

¼ teaspoon for 1 cup uncooked rice

¼ teaspoon in 2 cups white or cheese sauce

1/8 to ¼ teaspoon in ½ cup butter for basting chicken and seafood when broiling or baking

¼ to ½ teaspoon in 1 cup mayonnaise or sour cream for dressing or dunk for shrimp; lobster and other sea food.

VANILLA BEAN use Vanilla to flavor most sweet foods such as eggnog; milk shakes; hot chocolate; cakes; cookies; candies; glazes; frosting; whipped cream; pies; coffee;tortes; meringue shells; cheesecakes; dessert souffles; sweet breads; muffins; fruit desserts and stewed fruits;fruit compotes; poached pears and rice pudding and Ice cream.


¼ to ½ teaspoons in 1 cup heavy cream, whipped

1 teaspoons in 2 cups custard sauce

1 to 1 ½ teaspoons in frosting for 2 cake layers

2 to 3 teaspoons in cookie recipe making about 5 dozen

2 teaspoons in about 4 cups custard for making ice cream





It may not be well known, but BASIL is part of the mint family, or family Lamiaceae

Here is an alphabetical breakdown of some of the BASILS that I'm familiar with. Any of you out there that care to add to the list, please do!

AFRICAN BLUE BASIL While not recommended for culinary uses, African blue basil is more often used as an ornamental. A properly tended plant with plenty of room to expand can easily become a grand showpiece in your late spring or early summer garden, making itself the center of conversation among your guests. In zones 9 (maybe 8A) and warmer, given the right protection, this beauty can sometimes transform itself into a cherished perennial.

Because it can mature to four feet, African blue basil works best at the back of an annual border. It's wonderful pink and purple flowers with purple stems and leaves add to its desirability. In fact, many gardeners choose this basil in place of pink- or purple-flowering sage. There’s no need to be afraid of this plants ample volume as, like most basils, it is easily trimmed back.

BUSH BASIL (Ocimum minimum) is a dwarf species. It has similar constituents and flavor to the sweet basil.

CINNAMON BASIL – The name describes it all – basil with a cinnamon flavor. As you can imagine, its strong cinnamon scent easily distinguishes it from the others. It also has a somewhat harrier leaf. This medium-sized annual grows up to 2 ½ feet tall and produces pale pink to purple flowers.

Cinnamon basil is commonly used in hot drinks and added to fruits.

DARK OPAL BASIL Dark opal resembles a glossy-leafed, burgundy-and-purple coleus with pink flowers. While this two-foot annual is great for landscapes, it can also add a hint of exotic color to culinary favorites such as Italian Caprese or spring garden salads.

GENOVESE BASIL – A well-regarded favorite among foodies, Genovese basil is considered the best basil for use in Italian recipes (pesto, tomato-basil sauce, Caprese salad, etc.) Like sweet basil, this annual has a strong clove fragrance and ranges from 12 to 24 inches in height, but is easily distinguished by its more crinkly and in-turned leaves.

Genovese basil is one of the most popular types and is often used to make pesto. In Italy, it is considered a sign of love. It is claimed that the best Genovese basil, used to make real pesto, is grown in Northern Italy near the city of Genoa.

HOLY BASIL The attractive green and purple foliage of this perennial, combined with a strong showing of pink and white flowers, make this is an ideal landscape addition. Reaching heights up to three feet with a two-foot span, this hairy-leafed plant produces a fragrant clove scent. While holy basil can be used for culinary purposes in cooked foods, its hairy leaves and woodier stems make it difficult for use as a fresh herb. Holy basil stands the best chance for returning year after year in zones 9 or warmer.

HOLY BASIL, also known as TULSI, is commonly used in Thai cuisine and teas. It is native to the Old World Tropics, and often grows as a weed. Holy basil has been used for thousands of years to heal people and is even worshiped in parts of India.

Holy basil makes a therapeutic addition to the garden! Its leaves, chopped fresh or dried, can be infused to make a sort of basil tea. It’s good for everything that ails a person, and for the sick in need, there’s absolutely no over-doing it. In cooking, it kind of acts like a multi-spice, so make sure to taste and smell it before adding it to anything, and test its taste with other things. Holy basil has licorice/anise notes, citrus/lemony notes, minty notes, and clove-like notes — and the citrus, clove, and mint notes are about equal.

LEMON BASIL Similar to the other basils, this annual grows to a height of about two feet, but complements salads, dressing and teas with a savory lemon flavor and fragrance. This basil is a bit spindlier than its other basil relatives and is characterized by a flatter, narrower leaf

Popular for its strong, lemon scent, it is most often used in dishes in Indonesia, Thailand, and Laos.


Originating in Italy, mammoth basil has leaves that resemble lettuce and have jagged edges. When mature, the plant will be about 14 to 18 inches tall. The large mammoth basil leaves are often used in pesto or used whole in salads.

PERILLA, SHISHO (a basil relative) – There are a few kinds of perilla but this species, with green leaves and purple spots is perhaps the best for cooking. Used most often in Asian cuisine, Shisho has a cinnamon-lemon flavor. Perilla frutecens var “autopurpurea” (also known as a beefsteak plant) is an interesting relative that I’ve included here because of its much stronger licorice flavor that some cooks thoroughly enjoy.

Because it is often confused with coleus, it can double as ornamental basil. Even though it’s an annual, it spreads from seed.

PERILLA (a basil relative ) – Perilla frutecens var “crispa” and “autopurpurea” are also interesting relatives of basil that can be used as ornamentals. AUTOPURPUREA is almost entirely purple while CRISPA has very frilly, divided leaves. Both of these plants can take a little more shade than regular basil, but you shouldn’t expect it to develop the best flavor without more sunlight. Like its relatives, it needs plenty of growing space as it also spreads wildly from seed. Another great plant for the brown-thumbed gardener.

PURPLE RUFFLES BASIL This is a great plant to spice up the kitchen and the landscape! Perhaps the most colorful basil for landscapes, purple ruffles makes a great addition to salads and pesto. Similar in color to the dark opal, this plant is slightly smaller in stature (reaches up to 1 ½ feet) and its leaves are very frilly and ruffled. While it can handle a shadier spot in the garden, it still needs at least three hours of sunlight to mature properly. Purple ruffles gives off a combination of licorice and cinnamon scents and produces lavender and pink flowers that can also be eaten. Somewhat difficult to start from seeds, this plants works best from transplants.

RED RUBIN basil is a unique, sweet type of basil that has dark purple leaves. Its flavor is sweet like sweet basil, and is used commonly in salads and as a garnish.

SIAM QUEEN BASIL – Siam queen is a type of Thai basil that produces mint green leaves with very large flower heads – up to 6 inches across – that give off a spicy anise scent. ( it smells great!) It reaches heights up to 2 ½ feet, but it can be pinched back – and even eaten! – to restrict growth.


Spicy globe basil is similar to the taste of sweet basil. The main difference with this type is that is grows small, dense, and compact, at most 10 inches tall. Spicy globe basil is perfect for pots and small gardens.

You may purchase SPICY GLOBE BASIL from my store!

SWEET BASIL (Ocimum basilicum) is one of the most common and important culinary herbs in the world and is considered the king of herbs. It has been used for thousands of years in Italian dishes. Sweet basil can be used in almost any dish including meat, pizza, pasta, salad, and in sauces.

Basil and tomatoes go together; in the garden as well as in your sandwich. This is used widely in Mediterranean cuisine. Some of the most famous Italian dishes rely for their memorable flavor on this herb.

Also used as an insect repellant or fly repellant. I use equal parts of basil and sage together whenever I

start noticing flies appearing in my kitchen. I mixed the basil and sage together, ( you only need about ½ teaspoon of each) put it on a paper towel ( I've been known to turn the cover of a jar up and put some in it, you can use a small glass dish or custard cup, anything, as long as it is open) near where the flies seem to be and after a few minutes the flies go away. They don't die, so you don't need to worry about dead flies around. They just go away. I have requested that the waitress or cook in restaurants mix this and bring it to the table, when there are flies in the dining area. More than one cook has actually come out and thanked me and said they'll be using this mixture in the kitchen from then on. So,give a try. Even if the kids get in to it, it won't hurt them.

THAI BASIL, used commonly in Thai and Vietnamese cuisines, has a flavor of licorice and mint this annual is also referred to as anise or licorice basil. It reaches heights up to 24 inches and with a nearly two-foot expanse. . It has small green leaves and purple stems. Thai basil goes great with seafood, chicken, pork, and in curry sauces. stir-fried dishes. Thai basil can also be found served raw with pho, which is a soup made of noodles. In Taiwan, Thai basil can be found in the popular Three Cup Chicken dish. Thai basil is more easily found in specialty grocery stores that carry exotic or high-end fresh herbs.


There are three common types of basil that are usually found in Thai cuisine.




KRAPHAO IS better known as Thai holy basil while

MAENGLAK is better known as Thai lemon basil.

All three types, though similar, have different and distinct flavors when used in culinary dishes.

THAI HOLY BASIL is widely used in Indian dishes and is even worshiped and smells of cloves.

culinary uses of thai basil

Thai basil is most commonly used and found in chicken, pork, and curry dishes in Thailand and Vietnam.

WILD BASIL ( Calamintha clinopodium) is a species from northern Europe. It has a scent and flavor reminiscent of thyme.

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