Organic Farming from a City Boy's Perspective
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a lot of ways we are environmental activist. We belong to
many groups that support environmental practices. We attend
continuing education classes as a way to keep our nutrient management
certification or certified farmer status as it is called in Maryland.
are members of various groups local and national that relate to
specific functions associated with the farming community and specifically to
environmental issues that we practice. We practice what we preach,
that is how, with confidence, we can give tours of our sustainable
operation and impart ways that non-farmers can help the environment in their
there is the consumer activist side that dictates my spending
habits. I firmly believe, and economics proves, that my money speaks
louder than I do. After each of my posts I implore the buy local
mantra. I have learned that if you do not walk the
walk, you cannot talk the talk. It is that simple, I am not
naïve, I know that there are limits based on income. However, I know of a lot of people who are spendavist and products labeled Non-GMO Project Verified are their targets.
you find a genuine sustainable farmer support them. Speak up with your money
and gratitude. These people are working and committing themselves to your
health and the health of your family and generations to come. It is important
to note that if we all made choices to support local businesses and
growers then the industrial food complex will react. If you look at the
countries that ban GMO's it will surprise you. One of the latest
country's to refuse GMO food from US big Ag is China. China, the same
producers that brought us high sulfuric dry-wall, leaden toys
and clothing, killer pet food and treats.
admit, I was stunned to learn that they rejected GMO's, then I got scared. It
was one of those out of body experiences a moment of clarity
that solidified my stance against eating GMO's. Then knowing that we
have joined a cause that really is a worldwide issue adds to the pressure to
is not just us in the USA, it is humans all over this planet. We are
all in it together and it is a fight for future existence. What I see is that
it is greater than all of us and will impact future generations. The science
points this out but does not reach as drastic a conclusion. It merely
states the facts as they find them. If however, nothing changes then
the environmental impact continues in an increasingly negative way and we
will run out of clean resources.
local is not a fad, it is a core shift in how we as individuals can
communally join hands and fight for those who will inherit this earth long
after we are gone. Because it is those people who will suffer the greatest but
it also you who will benefit now. Spend your money in a way that helps you,
your community and your lineage. Be a spendavist, use your money to dictate
what big Ag should be doing. It is the only voice they know to listen
to. If the money stops flowing they will change course to capture it back.
Local: Help make a difference and impact the future in a
Posted by Brian
@ 08:08 PM EST
We knew going
into the profession of growing that we were taking on a losing
proposition. Statistics bear this out. In my lifetime we have seen the
start of “Farm Aide” and the demise of the family farm and truck
gardeners. However, there is a resurgence at hand.
Ten years ago we were
the younger generation that picked up the torch, turned our back to historical
evidence and trends, to put seeds and plants in the ground so that we and our
community could have fresh, safe, healthy alternatives to the industrial food
complex’s rendition of food.
Growing up, we ate
what was seasonally available. Meaning, in Maryland when Blue Crabs,
sweet corn and tomatoes were in season we ate them. For those of you who do not
know, this is a buck list item. You will never have a meal like, sweet corn,
crab cakes and fried tomatoes. These simple foods are in essence Baltimore
and in general, Maryland and are a must have before you leave this earth. You
will thank me or some will curse me; crabs have been off putting to some
visiting friends and colleagues but you have to at least try a crab cake if not
the crab itself.
When the weather
changed, we lament the losses of the fresh, delicious crustacean, tomatoes,
corn and fruits. However, we knew that next year would
come. Fall and winter, in my house, lead to frozen and
canned vegetable staples from the store for dinner. After getting married my
wife taught me about canning, my seasonal eating was extended for the
entire winter. We now use a pressure cooker to can. For
those of you who are unfamiliar with the difference of a steam water bath
versus a pressure cooker, it is like comparing a single engine plane to the
space shuttle. Maybe not so drastic, however the steam bath would never blow up the pressure cooker on the other hand can if it exceeds limitation.
In our family,
fall meant the start of ravioli season. My grandmother would never make
ravioli in late spring and summer because of the heat spoiling the meat
stuffing before the pasta dried. When the weather changed homemade pasta,
bread, pizza, sauces and ravioli would magically appear. I did not know
that we were eating seasonally but it was exactly that. Then as I aged we
started to get food during the winter that was out of season here in Maryland.
As with anything new and improved (or so I thought) we were able to have the
aforementioned dinner year round. One could easily tell the difference in taste so there
was some give and take.
We are now at the
point where we eat seasonally and have canned fruits and vegetables from the
garden as supplements. While giving a tour this last season one of the students
was astounded, the questions, the awe struck eyes and the attention she paid
was infectious. I then started to see what we do through her eyes and feel her enthusiasm;
it was the same feeling both my wife and I have when we started this venture. I
have said we grow for health not for wealth. I just wish wealth was easier to
come by; we would not have to struggle like we do. However, every so often all
that goes out the window when you see what you do through someone else’s eyes.
Buy Local: You will make someone's future a success if you do.
Posted by Brian
@ 10:09 AM EST
Henry Ford once said "if you believe you can or believe you cannot you are right". If there is doubt, self-fulfilling proficiency is likely to occur. If you believe you can you have a greater chance of success. I have to keep reminding myself that as doubt creeps in while we grow food. We expand a little bit each year but we really are at critical mass with land use. We need to incorporate conventional land into the total organic acreage in order to rotate chickens, crops and fallow land accordingly.
It takes three years to certify land as organic. After three years, we can use it to plant and free range our chickens. That land then becomes part of the total rotation of our farm model. This idea was brought fourth by Joel Salatin and what we have seen is nothing but positive. Fertilizer costs are down, we use annual grasses and legumes, which add biomass, and boosts soil fertility. The chickens take care of bugs, eat the grasses and legumes and leave the ground covered in healthy organic manure. Okay maybe healthy is not a good adjective to describe manure, it is though when you talk about the soil.
We are trying to get a National Resource Conservation Service grant in order to help manage the weeds and nutrition for the conventional land. We are in the process of filling out the paper work and getting it in before the deadline comes or we wait another year, and somehow, keep weed pressure down.
The amount of paper work grows each year, as we are now GAP certified. Good Agricultural Practices is worthwhile knowledge but the paper work on top of the organic documentation is substantial. We put off getting GAP certified because I thought it was something that we are already doing. However, we are dealing with a vendor that requires GAP and if we can sell to them, that will help us turn the corner this year. In order to get into the black we are going to concentrate on growing black and yellow squash in a big way.
Our farm manager is now working five days a week, four-hour days so we can keep up with harvest and delivery. We are planning to deliver seven hundred pounds total each week. Last year squash harvest started in June and ended in September. When we worked out the numbers, we needed to get a certain price in order to end up in the black. At least that is the plan.
Weather on the other hand will really dictate the outcome. Our integrated pest management strategy includes crop rotation and chickens eating enough insect larvae to take some pressure off the crops and of course, we had the artic vortex. What I learned about insects, especially BMSB, is that prolonged temperatures below freezing kill hibernating bugs. We also found that the vortex brought a HUGE heating bill, not only for the house but for the layers as well. Our collection tanks are filling with the spring rains we just need about six thousand more gallons of rain and we will be at capacity.
The corn has been planted so the anticipation starts, my record of accomplishment with organic sweet corn is dismal. However, for me fried tomatoes and corn on the cob is summer and represents a lot of what was good in my childhood. Beside, the Sugar Pearl corn that we plant is as close to Silver Queen as we will ever get. The work is hard, sometimes painful, and definitely dangerous but if you keep the big picture in mind the end result benefits more then we can wrap our hands around.
Buy Local: It does not have to be organic but at least it should be local.
Posted by Brian
@ 04:30 AM EDT
"Find something you
love and you will never work a day in your life". Whoever said that lied right through their
teeth. I work at something I love, but
it is the hardest thing I have ever done, with the exception of having my wife
go through open-heart surgery. I am not
saying that what I do does not bring me joy, satisfaction, self-reliance,
resilience, and the ability to feed those that can afford it and those unable.
However, growing food,
raising animals, fruits, vegetables, herbs and nuts is at times overwhelming. That said, I would encourage anyone that has
a passion for putting a seed in a pot, nurture it until it is ready to be
transplanted, and then care for it while it reaches maturity, only to harvest
and savior that devotion is a feeling I cannot adequately describe with words,
but encourage anyone to try. The
feelings and emotions surrounding the small act of pulling a tomato off the
vine and eating it out in the field brings months of dedication into focus. The intrinsic value of such an act does make
you forget the hardships as much as bring into focus the result of that energy
The grueling days spent
out in the heat, weeding, tying tomato or bean plants, weeding or keeping watch
over the plants for signs of distress or weeding again, are all after thoughts
as the juice from the tomato passes over your taste buds and a little trickle
runs down the side of your lip. The
taste, firmness and freshness are unmatched by anything you have had before,
save last year’s, crop. That bite places
me in a different mental state and emotion.
For me, none of the hard work matters, it is cerebral and the taste,
texture and smell have all the attention.
We started growing
organic in 1990, before there were organic standards in the United States. I was trying to lose weight and I was not a
vegetable eater. For me during the
summer, fried tomatoes and corn on the cob slathered in butter covered in salt
was a meal. I was not very good at
eating vegetables, peas, string beans, spinach or any other for that matter. Then I started to research what vegetables
gave you the most vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants. My reasoning was if I eat those foods, then I
could at least not have to eat many vegetables just these powerhouses and go
That is when I learned
that chemicals banned in the US where sold to other countries and shipped back
to us on fruits and vegetables in “trace amounts”. To me trace amounts means the existence of;
if it exists, you are ingesting carcinogenic materials. Say what you want about trace amounts, but in
my lifetime, there have been more chemicals proven toxic and cancer causing and
profit has always been the driving force for its use and longevity. I grew up during the great tobacco wars of
misinformation, junk science and the greed of the manufacturers. While at the same time, watching family
members who were smokers get cancer and suffer until their demise.
Like anything, there was
a learning curve or vertical incline as I experienced, now I am in the learning
curve. Back then, I just wanted to eat healthy;
we supported our local farmer to supplement our own food. We bought local meats and chickens and
continued our own education into growing.
Thirteen years later, we took the leap and started to grow
professionally. There have been hard
times and then there have been hard times.
Nevertheless, after seven years, we see the light at the end of the
tunnel and we know it is not a train. This
year is our tipping point; the momentum from this year will carry us into the
next. We already have products sold and
we are not even at the planning stages.
You have to have a
passion, resilience to failure, an unquenchable thirst for knowledge, patience,
fortitude and if you have animals the ability to be the first line veterinarian. Then there is that need to kill, which is
hardly talked about. At some point in
time it will happen, might be a mousetrap or bait, it might be a groundhog or
snake, but there is going to be a time when fending off a nuisance will lead to
lethal methods. That part we were not
prepared for and had to adjust.
It is just something we
love, eating a meal (protein, vegetable, starch and homemade dessert) and know
it is our labor and our love that have brought this bounty to our table.
Buy Local: It is what
is for dinner.
Posted by Brian
@ 04:37 PM EDT
I have seen many things while tending chickens. The cruelness of them as they attacked their own when one is bleeding. Eating eggs in the nest, some layers fighting seemingly for no reason other then one bumped the other. Then there is the occasional layer that thinks it is a rooster and roosters running to break up a fight.
Recently we had a female that we call Big Foot, because she cut her foot and it was infected. We did not catch the wound until both feet were swollen. We took it to the hospital pen and gave it antibiotics, cleaned the wound thoroughly and bandaged the foot and leg. Her other foot was fine except the bacteria had spread to it also. Both feet were abnormally large. We knew she would no longer be organic and we are prepared to keep both flocks (free range and certified organic free range) separate so that they eggs do not mix with the certified ones.
Turns out Big Foot was more a tenant then a producer, she just did not lay eggs. Still as she progressed, we kept check of her and made sure the swelling had gone down. Which it did but her feet are still larger then those of regular layers. We were processing a small batch of broilers this past spring when unbeknownst to us one of the broilers got away.
After everything was cleaned up and the trailer returned, we closed up shop. We raise our peeps in the barn until they are grass ready. Depending on weather, some stay longer then others. This flock of Silver Whites (cross breed, not heritage) was one of them. That night we put Big Foot away and found the escapee in the stall where we raise the peeps. Well what was done was done. If she made it, we would process her with the next batch that was already out on pasture.
Crossbreeds developed so they come up to weight in a very short period of six weeks. The down side is the skeletal-muscular and internal organs do not develop as quickly as the meat the chicken carries. If they are not processed they literally collapse onto themselves and die of a heart attach. It became apparent that the Silver white, now named, Cracker liked being with Big Foot. Where ever Big Foot would go Cracker was right behind. It took some doing to get Coadee to leave her alone. As far as Coadee was concerned only the Rohde Island Reds are suppose to free range. This white bird was breaking Coadee’s rule. We eventually convinced Coadee that this particular bird was okay to be outside. The dog is smart and just keeps on proving so.
We went into the stall one day and found that Big Foot had started to lay eggs. For almost a year, she did not lay but we started finding her eggs. We eliminated any other source, kept them both inside for a day and let them have the run of the barn. Sure enough when we went in to check on them the next day, we found an egg.
Cracker would shadow Big Foot everyday they came out of the barn. As time passed and processing day neared, we started to talk about what we were going to do with Big Foot’s new friend. We got the Silver Whites because our feed store had a canceled order and asked if we could help by purchasing some. Silver Whites are not a heritage breed but we took them to help.
The bottom line was that Cracker was only going to be around for less then six to twelve months before he died of a heart attach. As bad, as it was he was processed with the Delaware’s that we raised after the Silver Whites. The next day we opened the door to the barn to let Big Foot out, gave her water and food and went about our work. She did not come out; she just stayed in the stall. Now I always talk about anthropomorphizing and for our own emotions keep the concept in the forefront. Nevertheless, I swear Big Foot was not acting the same and not her regular self. Then we noticed there were no eggs. This went on for about a two weeks. Never saw her outside and never found eggs. She just stayed in the stall and milled about.
I try not to jump to conclusions but something tells me chickens learn, we know socialize, can sustain themselves in the wild and have decision-making capacities. To which if there are chickens out and away from their house or too close to the vegetables, I will yell, “COME ON NOW, GET BACK,” Wherever they are they will turn and head back to the houses. Now the only reason this works is Coadee. They know if they do not get back, a seventy pound black English Sheppard is about to make their life very uncomfortable. Coadee has never injured a bird but even I cringe sometimes when she chases one of the layers down and picks them up to take them to the house.
Well Big Foot has gotten back to her old ways and has actually started providing eggs. Those are our eggs because right now she is the only one in lot one. Per regulations lot one is our designation for free range, lot two is certified organic. Every so often, you see things as they are, not as you expect them to be and Big Foot showed us a kinship we did not fully appreciate.
Buy Local: good food, good people and a healthy earth come included.
Posted by Brian
@ 05:11 PM EDT
Investigative Hold is Quarantine just with different words...
We experienced our first forced poultry quarantine in our existence. We were within a six-mile radius of an avian flu outbreak and it was not a pleasant experience. It all started one Saturday morning, with a call from the Maryland Department of Agriculture, Veterinarian. We were told that a USDA and MDA pathologist would be visiting the farm on the next day to take samples of our flock. This is something we thought we would never go through. However, once it happens you just hope for the best, keep everything in check and have patience. Also, it makes you realize how vulnerable you are and need to start to develop a plan where flocks are completely separated so that you do not have total losses.
One bird with avian flu means the entire flock goes. This was a sobering thought. If we lost our flock, we would be dead in the water. One of the few moneymaking activities we do on the farm is egg production. With time to think, we started to realize that we would quickly go out of business and suffer huge monetary losses if we lost the flock. We are already on a thin margin and starting over does not seem likely. This then made us think about how we actually could survive if we did have an outbreak.
While on the phone with the Veterinarian, we learned exactly what an Investigate Hold would entail. First, no poultry could leave the farm or come onto the farm. Second, if a truck or car came to the farm before the vehicle left, their tires were prayed with a two parts per million solutions of bleach and water. We took the added precaution of stopping vehicles before they came on the farm and sprayed the tires.
This could not have come at the worst time, it was in the spring and we had peeps ordered for layers and broilers. We also had sales of peeps that had been ordered in the winter by a few of our customers. So we had peeps that would be leaving the farm.
Sunday morning arrived along with the USDA and MDA pathologist, dressed in biohazard suits and set about testing one third of our flock. The broilers were not tested because they were in their pen and not exposed. We also practice strict bio-security protocols on the farm as a routine. Because I was able to tell the Veterinarian about our bio-security protocols, we did get a waiver for our eggs. If we did not have that procedure in place, we would not have been able to take eggs off the farm until the “Hold” was lifted. That is another story.
Sunday, I helped the pathologist round up the thirty chickens and take throat cultures of the birds. As if the stress was not high enough, I looked under a trailer and spotted what seem to be a lifeless. chicken. I poked to get it to move and nothing. Honestly, there was a split second where I thought I could easily get rid of the bird without being seen. That lasted a nano-second and I knew what I had to do, I took the bird to the pathologist and showed it to them. They looked at it determined that it did not have any of the symptoms of avian flu and told me to dispose as normal.
Our "normal." is to place the chicken in the compost and tell it that it is time to nourish the soil as the soil has nourished you. It is our humane practice and acknowledgement that she has given us eggs, joy, entertainment and humility, while growing from the nutrients in the ground.
We were getting peeps on Monday and I asked about receiving them. They looked at me and said they will get back to me. Monday came and we picked up our layers and broilers. The first problem was a fifty percent mortality of the delivered layer peeps. On Wednesday, we got a call from USDA stating that we could not bring peeps onto the farm or take any off.
We have a small window of time each spring to bring in our peeps and get them to laying stage before winter sets in and they are hearty. The quarantine lasted close to two months; we lost sales and the ability to replenish our aging layers. Our flock tested negative and eventually we received a release from the quarantine, but our timing was off and we need to figure out how to integrate twenty-five layers instead of fifty.
Adding new flocks to established flocks is a delicate process and takes planning. That time is coming and we still do not have a sure integration program yet. At least not one that we both agree will work. It will come but until then the growing peeps are in a moveable pen and on grass.
Buy Local: It is how we can change the industrial food complex
Posted by Brian
@ 07:37 PM EDT
It is farmer’s market time. From the beginning of our foray into growing professionally, eventually you hear someone say “So and so grows using organic methods but they are not certified”. Then it is usually followed up with "They say it is too expensive," or "The paper work is too much". Oh, really, I am sorry I just do not buy it. As a consumer if you hear that walk away. If they are going to talk the talk then they should walk the walk.
These folks usually are wannabe’s and are in it for the money. If they were true to the principles, they could register as "Organic Exempt". It is the minor leagues of certified organic and costs a whopping thirty-five dollars to register and you do not get audited, you do have to submit the appropriate paperwork but it is no where never the volume the certified folks have. What they are really telling you is they follow organic practices until something goes wrong then they pull out conventional herbicides, insecticides and fungicides to save their crops.
The first excuse “It is too expensive”. What are they talking about? Is it the certification fee or the cost of inputs for use in the growing practice? If it is the former, it is simply not true. There is a five hundred dollar certification fee; however, if you pass you get four hundred dollars back. Therefore, they cannot be referring to the certification fee. Now if it is the latter then they are not using organic methods. The reason organics is more expensive is that you are using basic organic ingredients. Ingredients that if it rains are washed off and you have to reapply or have a very limited shelf life. Again, if they are referring to the inputs as being too expensive they are not using true organic methods and they are in violation of the National Organic Program and undercutting everything that hundreds of thousands of us do on a daily basis and demeaning the integrity of the organic label.
If they say they are natural, what does that mean. We use plants that are indigenous to our area. That way they grew up and evolved to cohabitate in our growing area. Meaning they can defend themselves from viruses, insects, weather conditions and other environmental factors. But I can tell you we still have to help the plants out every now and then. More often then not really but it is because our environment is changing faster then the plants can evolve. BMSB is just one of many factors that would lend credence.
Let us face it; they use those words to draw you in, to give you a false sense of comfort. They know you are not going to get a tissue sample or evaluate their soil for chemicals. We have to though. At any point, the MDA or USDA can come onto our farm and take samples of plant tissue or our soils. Then they will do a chemical analysis and determine if in fact there are non-organic substances. The people that say they use organic methods do not face that scrutiny. Nor do they face an audit each year. This brings us to the second excuse.
“There is too much paper work,” Once again hundreds of thousands of us in the United States and the rest of the world can do it. We both work full time jobs and we are able to keep up with the paper work. I know that there are some that truly think they are adhering to organic principles but if you are not certified or exempt you have no business advertising your food as organic, organically grown, or using organic methods. Actually if you are not certified or exempt you are not allowed to use the word “Organic” at all, period. Unless you want to pay a ten thousand dollar fine. All natural, aqua-ponic, perma culture any of these terms replace organic, but no, the word that conjures money in their mind is organic and that is why they say, “We grow using organic methods”. Just say thanks and walk away. The better educated you are the worst chance they have of ripping you off and providing you something lesser then true organics.
As a consumer, we are always under attack by charlatans, a huckster posing as growers trying to cash in on what they think is a lucrative market niche, without really having to do the work, the research or spend the money that it takes to handle outbreaks. Instead, they pretend and take the easy way out, when honestly they are just con artists.
If you are going to talk the talk, walk the walk. If it was easy everyone would do it but growing organic is not easy, it is mentally taxing, hard physical labor on the hottest days of the year, inputs are expensive and outcomes heartbreaking at times. The longer you do it the more you learn, the more audits you go through the stronger you become. Then you hear someone say so and so grows using organic methods, yeah and I am good looking. Unfortunately, just because I say it, does not make it so.
Buy Local: Ask questions, if they say they, use organic methods ask for their certification. Otherwise, walk away feeling proud you were not duped.
Posted by Brian
@ 12:05 PM EDT
Work on a small farm primarily consists of manual labor and is a grueling proposition. James Carville stated, “Next to Love, the greatest gift someone can give is their labor”. Never has such a statement hit closer to home then what we experienced during strawberry season.
We were close to getting into a major retailer, but we had to have our “Good Agricultural Practice,” GAP certificate. We did not get it in time so the berries destined for the store sent us hustling to find buyers. Before that, we had to harvest the strawberries. I was on Agrication last week and was picking strawberries everyday. I can tell you, first hand that harvesting strawberries six hours a day is back breaking work, eight to ten is down right unfair. Yet there are migrant workers that do just that.
By Tuesday evening, I was whining like a tired two year old. My wife being the sympathetic person she is, told me to suck it up and get back out there. Okay, maybe she did not say it like that, but I know what she meant. By the end of the day, my feet, ankles and lower back were killing me. Sleeping did not bring much relief, every time I moved some part of body reminded me of the days work. I would get up the next morning gingerly putting on my clothes and work my muscles loose.
Then unexpectedly we get a call from a local woman that home schools her kids. She wanted to know if she and her kids could volunteer to pick strawberries for us. She is big into the local movement and had seen other organic strawberry growers go under. She wanted to make sure to help in order to keep us afloat. Then the Carville statement came to my mind. Thanks, Kate, the intrinsic rewards we felt and gratitude was overwhelming.
I have said this before growing and raising food is a humbling experience I just did not know in how many ways it could happen. The mom and her four kinds came out on two separate days and helped pick over fifty pounds each time. It was incredible to meet her and talk to her kids. I cannot help myself I am a natural born teacher, so I took the opportunity to ask them questions. Like “What is a good bug versus a bad bug?” and others questions about nature. I have to show them the new layers that were on grass and the meat birds we are raising.
As the week progressed, it was not looking good for sales. We had about one hundred and twenty pounds in the refrigerator and my wife was contacting every restaurant in town and any other potential bulk buyers. Being a small farm, you are all things and when there are just three of you, things fall behind quickly. However, we managed to get them into the Orchard in Frederick City and sales increased on the farm.
Then a group of three adults and four kids came up to pick. They were repeat customers but I did not recognize them and I asked, “How did you find us,” of course the reply was “We were here last year,” so I made a joke about my mental capacity and took them out to the berries. They came back with fifty-six pounds of strawberries. We made a game out of weighing all the different baskets and flats with people guessing the weights before the total displayed. One family picked 6.66 pounds of strawberries, the display was facing away from me and when I heard them say that I quickly picked up one of their berries and ate. “Thanks," was their response. Strawberry season is over for us, but there is still work to do with them. They produce fruit for about three weeks, then you must renovate, weed, feed, keep them healthy, cover for winter, uncover in the spring. Then whine like a baby in June of the next year.
It is people like Kate and everyone else that came out to pick that give us hope, finding kindred spirits and people willing to help knowing you are trying to make a difference in an indifferent world and they see that an get to be part of that.
Buy Local: Find a grower by you and give it a try. Now is the best time.
Posted by Brian
@ 07:40 PM EDT
Our operation is small and we have never had an instance or a concern about food safety. Being germ-phobic has not hurt us either. However, we recently received our GAP certification. GAP stands for Good Agricultural Practices. It is all about food safety and cross contamination. Being certified organic I shunned being certified GAP I felt we already exceeded the regulations. I ask people when was the last time you heard of a small farm or local butcher having to recall their products.
Having taken the course I now see the value the information has to all farms, not just small but especially large. I was in the process of writing our GAP plan. One of the documents in the plan is a Hazard Mitigation matrix. The matrix contained all potential hazards, how to identify them, and the mitigation of the hazard once discovered. I am a contingency planner, so I listed all the possible hazards we face from growing, harvesting, shipping and delivery. I was running out of ideas so I put "A human defecates in the field,” Then I addressed the mitigation and actions to be taken if there was an occurrence.
Having exhausted every hazard, I could think of, I felt proud and wanted my wife to review my marvelous work. Upon reading the human defecation hazard, I was chided and I think the comment was "Oh come one, it’s a little overboard, don't ya think?” I admitted it might be but in the realm of possibility, it was possible. No matter it was taken out.
Not long after we got our GAP packet from the Maryland Department of Agriculture, there were forms and signs inside and low and behold one sign shows a person squatting in a field, pants around their knees and the international NO sign covers him. It still brings a smile and little chuckle when I think about it, however, it is real and it is a problem. We are too small but I can imagine on larger operations it happens.
There are regulations about how far away a bathroom is from the fieldwork, what a proper hand-washing station is and how long you need to wash your hands and safely disinfect them. There are regulations about hand washing and packaging area's, break rooms, refrigerator temperatures, co-mingling and many others. Five logs require data on a daily basis, from cleaning bathrooms to cleaning the delivery truck all in an effort to make the food supply safe. I cannot find fault with that, no one should die from ingesting spinach, tomatoes or cantaloupes. I am glad we took that extra step to get GAP certified. .
Each season brings a Farm Safety talk and walk through of the medical kits and fire extinguishers. Last year one of the folks pointed out that one of our medical kits was Tim Allen’s’ “Tool Time Safety Kit”. The TV show Tool Time started in 1991. Given that some of the folks we had working for us were not even born at the time, it was decided we needed to purchase a new medical kit. Who knew medical kits expire. Farm safety is the number one priority on our farm and everyone is trained on how to properly and safely operate tools, vehicles and equipment. You must pass my test before you get to use a potentially dangerous object.
We have an extensive medical supply kit in the house. Given my propensity to cut, scrape, bang, twist, burn, jab, stick, and generally wound myself while working that we have accumulated enough medical supplies to handle most types of small injuries.
Now along with farm safety reviews, we have incorporated GAP training with the same emphasis.
Buy Local: You have to search but the journey is worth the destination when you find the right one.
Posted by Brian
@ 06:11 PM EDT
Farm Love Is...
The anticipation of working the soil after a long hard winter.
Feeling the excitement and hope that spring brings with the change of season.
When you lose chickens and you feel pangs of guilt, stomach upset and heartbreak.
Knowing what you do makes an impact on people that purchase your product and the generations that will benefit from our sustainable practices.
Teaching kids about chickens, let them harvest eggs, wash, weigh, label and package them for sale. Even though the broken egg count rises by 75 percent.
You find a wounded chicken, clean its wounds and place her in the hospital pen. Watching and cleaning her wounds, then she recovers and starts laying eggs.
The flock of layers spot you and start to run towards you, knowing they are about to get food, water or just some attention.
A one hundred degree day so you decide to take it easy, and only weed for three hours.
Seeing the mothers bringing their kids to the fields to pick organic strawberries and witnessing the joy the family has.
You get a call from a total stranger to praise your efforts after tasting our eggs.
Something that less then one percent of our population gets to experience. However, more people are joining the local movement in larger numbers.
What keeps us going and looking for that niche that will finally be our cash cow.
Coming home and Fer Coadee comes up to lick my face, out of pure love and joy and I let her, even though I know she has eaten chicken poo.
Buy Local: Your effort and dollars support more then you know
Posted by Brian
@ 08:40 PM EDT
Growing food is a humbling experience; it is also,
physically demanding, intellectually challenging and incredibly
stressful. Above all else there needs to be an abundance of patience and perseverance. Along with the work there is waiting, waiting to see if seeds germinate, if the
weather holds or will bring much needed water. Waiting for the right time
to release beneficial bugs to attack during the detrimental insect various stages of
development is a critical for our integrated pest management plan. Waiting for signs, deviations or changes. Which creates the need for contingency planning. And then a new, one of a kind, problem occurs, one of those once in a lifetime events like when farms were first invaded by Japanese beetles, ours is BMSB.
The brown marmarated stinkbugs die with insecticidal soap
as long as they are in the first four stages (instars) of life. We have
to get the trap crops in the ground early to catch the over wintering adults as
they mate and leave their larvae. We use an early rising crop like
radishes and surround that with sunflowers, which take longer to reach maturity.
At maturity, the bright yellow sunflowers attract the adult BMSB and that allows us to
use a mix of Pyganic and Surround. This is a lethal combination and can
kill beneficial insects as well creating a negative environmental impact.
There is waiting for the actual fruit or
vegetable to appear and then nurturing them to maturation. You wait for
the first signs of things that will reduce the yield or destroy the crop.
Growing is filled with hope, anticipation, failure and joy. Pulling a
tomato off the vine and biting it wakes up most of your senses, first you will
taste, then smell the inside, see the red flesh and get the real taste of
Umami, the elusive 5th taste that we as humans experience.
Those sensations go with all the fruits and vegetables you grow.
This is an incredibly hard job not just physical,
emotional, intellectual and dangerous, but expensive too. The big picture
can be overwhelming that is why we have chosen to be part of a farmer-mentoring
program. The farming community is unlike any other that I have had
association. I have written a lot about calling asking for advice and
visiting farms (field walks) to find out ways to do things. The older
farmers have plenty of knowledge, experience and information at their
fingertips as well as generations of friends and colleagues. Without these people and their wisdom there is so much more room for error and failure. You could
say that it is nice for these people to be so important to the rest of
us. However, passing on their knowledge to others they see it as, it is more important to be nice.
Buy Local: Support
sustainable, healthy, humane farming.
Posted by Brian
@ 06:11 PM EDT
I liken the GMO debate to what I grew up learning about the decades the tobacco industry knowingly sold products that caused death to the general public. Thalidomide, DDT and their ilk was another learning process for everyone. On one side you have profiteer’s willing to say anything to promote their product to enrich them even though it is to the detriment of the very consumer that makes them rich. The GMO debate walks like tobacco, sounds like tobacco and smells like tobacco and is history repeating itself.
You have the industrial food complex spending millions if not billions already on sending out misinformation to confuse consumers about the relative safety of GMO products. On the other side, you have formal, yet independent findings that show detriments to the environment (super weeds and bugs), upper-respiratory issues (increase in asthma suffers, even when increase in population is taken into account), endocrine problems in predictor species (bass and bullfrogs feminized by Atrazine), food-born allergies, anti-biotic resistant strains of bacteria, the list just seems to keep growing. When growing up I did not know of anyone who had a peanut allergy. I know they must have existed but today, we have people that are dangerously allergic to peanut, gluten, lactose, soy, egg, latex, shellfish and others.
Corporations are telling us GMO’s are safe, so did big tobacco and the chemical companies about their products in the 1950 and 60’s. Just look at who supplied money to the anti-gmo labeling initiatives in California prop-37 and Washington’s I-522 initiatives. Then you have independent researchers finding out there are detriments to the product. Big tobacco brought out study after study verifying their claim that held cigarettes harmless. You hear there is no science to support GMO and cancer links. At one point in time there was no scientific evidence that linked lung, lymphoma and other cancers to cigarettes.
Our history is fraught with corporations going after profit over the safety of the consumer, which is why we have some consumer protection laws. Having grown-up witnessing the ravages of tobacco’s toll on my family and seeing the ills of DDT and thalidomide babies makes me more acute to what claims are being presented and sold to me and by whom.
When first introduced GMO’s were sold based on farmers having to use less herbicides and insecticides in the field, saving them money while increasing yields. Now, independent research is proving otherwise. We have the advent of super-weeds and bugs that have become resistant, causing the need for even more and stronger chemicals. Then there are the other industrialized nations, in the world, that have banned GMO’s.
Right now, what I see from both sides harkens back to the 60’s and 70’s when big tobacco was desperately trying to keep their secrets hidden and that hits too close to home. If GMO’s are safe, why not label and let the consumer make the choice, even if they are not safe, people still choose to smoke.
Support Your Local Truck Gardner
Posted by Brian
@ 08:43 PM EDT
“We only have chickens,” that is what I keep repeating to myself as we work each day in the snow covered landscape that has become the chickens grazing grounds. In Maryland we are use to more green than white. Chickens eat twice as much food, if not more, when the temperatures drop, which led to a shortage of feed. There has been little melt so I am now debating on whether to remove snow from around their houses so they can get to some green. The ground immediately around their houses is frozen, brown and dotted with chicken droppings.
Chickens do get frostbite just like humans, their waddles, combs and bottom of their feet are mainly susceptible to frigid temperatures. We selected Rhode Island Reds for two reason’s they are a recovering species on the Nature Conservancy List and they are hearty winter birds, hearty enough for Rhode Island’s weather. We have taken necessary precautions and done the best we can. There is only so much you can do before nature takes over, which is the angst producing part. Eggs laid closest to the doors often freeze and break, tempting the birds to peck at them.
Being a humane farm is better for the animal, its workers and the product produced. The eggs are selling well and we need to step up supply. We have twenty-five new layers getting ready to start to lay. We got a call not to long ago from a customer that was very appreciative of our eggs stating they are the best he has ever tasted. I have kept that voice mail for it is cherished, humbling and fortifying for our mission. However, being a humane farm at times like these is physically and mentally exhausting, expensive and dangerous. Yet gratifing and uplifting when we make it through another day.
There is Fer Coadee, added to this sub-freezing weather. With the chickens closed for the night, she gets to come in. During the day, we have had temperatures and wind chills in the single and minus range. Coadee is a longhair English Sheppard; she has a doghouse loaded with straw and pine shavings. I know she uses it, because I see her emerge when I come home. That still does not ease my mind; I already know that I tend to anthropomorphize so I work extra hard convincing myself that she is okay and will be okay until we get home.
Once home she is the first to be inspected for sign of frostbite or ice stuck between her toes, then I go out to the birds. We have three horse trailers that hold all the birds; each house has a heated water bucket, light and heat lamp. We use an intelligent plug that turns on when the temperature drops to 34 and goes off when it hits 42. That saves on electricity but if you never get to 42 the heat lamp stays on which drives costs up.
Last Tuesday the real temperature was minus four degrees without winds. I was able to stay home and waited until around noon. It was still freezing out, but the trailers are not large enough (given humane standards) for all the birds to walk around inside. I went out and opened the door’s wide enough for a chicken to exit and secured them in place. It was a very bright day so I was not concerned as much about hawks as I was dogs. Every so often Coadee would go out and watch the birds. For their part, the birds would come out look around and go back inside. As more ground shows the foray outdoors gets, extended. They are no dummies, they know it is cold and the house gives them reprieve. The upside is once I feed them they all come in and I can close them up for the night and I can end my day earlier. We do not have it as bad as the ranchers that lost so many of their animals in the blizzards. As I said we only have chickens, however, when I read something like that it hits home and my heart and prayers go out to them.
Remember the next time you are at a farmers market, it might be bright, sunny and warm but right now as I write this, it is minus four degrees(outside).
Buy Local: It might be the only choice our future generations have.
Pearl of Wisdom: When you are holding a basket with 50 eggs in it, do not throw the Frisbee for the dog.
Posted by Brian
@ 07:26 PM EST
I had a rather embarrassing experience at the farmers market this past summer and unfortunately, it was of my own doing. When we first started out farming, we had a lot of knowledge about growing on a small scale. If it was not for the more experienced people around us, I cannot image how steep the learning curve would have been during the transition from small to bigger than small.
Asking questions about growing, farm operations, animals, grants, programs, resources the list is endless. It always amazed me how you could call someone and they would give you their time to answer your questions and give knowledge gained from experience. We do this ourselves today. When asked we give our time and extensive failure experiences we have had. We do have success but that is not what most want to hear. They want to know what mistakes not to make.
Sure, I can say what tomato or sweet corn grows best for us, but I can also tell them what to do about detrimental bugs and when to introduce beneficial insects to counteract the thieves. Being prepared for the bad is what makes it possible to succeed. I might always have a negative to impart but it is a way of making sure they do not fall into the same trap. We all make mistakes no matter our level of experience and learn from any given season from one to the next. When someone is generous enough to answer my call and give me insight, it is greatly appreciated and warmly accepted.
Of all the farmers that have helped me, I looked up to every one. I treat them with the respect they deserve. They are working and doing an incredible job and for them to spare me the precious time they have is a testament to the type of people they are. I still look up to them and try to pass on what was given to me.
This past weekend I learned that one of those people turned to the dark side. It was by their choice and their plan. However when I say "turned to the dark side" I mean an ex-organic farmer falsely advertised their products as organic, even though we had asked him to remove his sign the previous week. We (the other organic) folks were given what we now know was a lame excuse to cover up his deceptive practice. What is worse he sends his help to the market and blames them for the deceptive advertising.
People are and can be disappointing, but when someone takes up the organic mantle that is a commitment akin to devotion. What organic farmers do is for the benefit of all, family, friends, community, animals, dirt, grasses, water and air. What he has done is the complete opposite; it is one thing to make the change, it is another to mislead and perpetrate fraud. He feeds his chickens with non-organic feed (which has GMO’s) and lets his customers think they are still getting healthy non-gmo chickens and eggs. If there is fraud in one part of a business as with his chickens, it makes you question other aspects of the operation.
When it first happened I went over to his stall and talked to the interns, and told them about the regulations and the use of the word organic, and asked that the sign be taken down I also called the owner to talk to him but had to leave a message. I left and went back to the farm, my wife stayed at the stand. Later the owner came to the market and came over and aggressively inquired about WHO COMPLAINED. The aggressive part is how my wife and others described his behavior. Odd, I thought he is wrong, he knows it and he put us in an untenable situation. Bottom line is the sign came down and he apologized blaming his staff. Which none of us believed but let it go just the same.
The next weekend came, we put the stand up, and I left to go back to the farm. When I came back to tear down and leave I was informed that not only was the sign back up, but they had doubled down by writing the following; “formally organic, using organic inputs”. When I learned that things went south instantly and the next thing I know I am yelling at the market master, I am pointing out the vendor is lying to the market master’s neighbors, that his actions this week is a blatant F-U to those of us who asked to have sign taken down and he is putting the integrity of the market in jeopardy..
I have made a list of all those I needed to apologize to, because of my outburst, I approached each one, and asked forgiveness with the utmost sincerity. The other list, if those people are honest enough to approach me, I have other things to say. It was not my proudest moment as a farmer and as I said, I am very embarrassed about how I delivered my message. The ex-organic person wrote everyone apologizing saying his staff made a mistake. Only problem was I talked to his staff, I went over to apologize to them that day because they are interns and it was not there doing. I also wanted to educate then on the regulation at issue and to make sure they understood when you could use the word organic. They were obviously not getting that education from their employer and they are there to learn.
What they told me was that the owner had changed the sign and told them to put it up. I could not help but respond back to his written apology pointing out the conversation I had with is staff. I was not interested in his feeble, disingenuous apology.
If someone uses the word organic, ask for his or her certification. They will be organic exempt or certified organic. That way you will avoid the people that mimic the industrial food complex. It is tough to see someone you looked up to turn to the dark side and now become the poster child for all that is bad with the charlatans at farmers markets. When I quit, we will just stop and grow for ourselves. I tell people we have two things going for us, one is integrity the other is taste, and sometimes we do not have taste but we will at least tell you that.
Buy Local but be smart ask questions and look for certifications
Posted by Brian
@ 04:26 PM EST
The FDA and USDA or I should say the poultry industry announced that frozen chickens could ship to China for processing into nuggets, patties, hot dog’s etc. Contemplate this thought for a second. US manufacturers slaughter chickens here, freeze them and ship the frozen bird to China. They ship the frozen bird to China mind you; the carbon footprint for this part alone has already surpassed the existing footprint for the same product. Add to that, they are going to allow the kill line to speed up and reduce the number of federal inspectors in the slaughterhouses. How can the logical mind not see the seeds of destruction that this process creates?
Researchers have just discovered another avian flu called H7N9. This particular strain is anti-biotic resistant, but more importantly has the ability to regenerate itself with no impedance. Guess where this flu originated? It is dismaying to know that our government, the government that we were taught was there to protect the Country’s interest and us has been bought by corporations.
In my first year of college, I took Economics 101. Our first test had one question that still to this day I believe I was right but the instructor said I was wrong. I argued to the point of being threatened that I would fail the course if I did not shut up. The question was multiple choice and it went something like this:
Corporations are in business for:
- making profit
- the good of the community
- better the country
- give people jobs
I am a capitalist, my father taught me how to invest in the stock market, at young age and I had some business savvy having cut lawns for a bunch of years. So I chose A. After all, if a business does not make a profit it ceases to exist. No, I was wrong. The answer was B. You can play out in your own mind how things went during the review of the test after grading. I could not believe that an Economics professor could be so naive. What a rube everyone knew the answer was not B and I held steady in my argument. That was when he had heard enough and threatened me with failure.
Now, today, I wish he were right, now I long for the days when he would have been right. What we have today is what I knew all along. Business is a bottom line driven decision-making model. What has changed though is the sheer greed, narcissism, hatred and down right prejudices of those that lead these corporations along with the politicians that they have bought. I am tired of all the vitriol that passes for public discourse and the narrow mindedness of a minuscule number of people being bolstered and manipulated by the one percent. I do not mean the Hells Angles one percent; I mean the other one percent. We were a country that accepted the worlds tired and poor, where by working hard lead to the path of stability and better things to come. Where the American dream was to own a home, educate your children and provide them with better opportunities.
I miss the days when people were cordial and allowed others to express their beliefs without yelling and belittling the person for those beliefs, where government was for the people and by the people. Those days are gone I know but there has to be an alternative to the course we are now heading. Sending frozen chickens to a country that produces the most avian flu then all other countries combined seems like an incredibly risky adventure. Not to mention we loose more jobs. We have shipped enough manufacturing out of the US to jeopardize a huge part of our population. They were called the middle class and we were large in numbers.
On our farm, we try to grow food so that all can afford not just the lucky few. I want to get to the point were my neighbors in the old section of town can purchase safe, healthy organic fruits, vegetables, eggs and chickens. I am not a good executive; I have too much empathy and compassion for my fellow man. When people do buy from us, especially those using WIC or SNAP coupons they get extra. This act is part of our mission; our spent layers are processed and given to soup kitchens or to food banks.
I know I am not alone but our legions are small compared to the sheer amount of greed. We will be cutting back drastically this year in the amount of things we will grow, in an effort to stay economically viable. I know our business model is environmentally and economically restrictive but I cannot change it for it is how we feel and what we believe is the correct thing to do for humanity.
You really have to ask yourself, "How do they raise those chickens, slaughter them, ship them to China, process them there and ship them back for sale in the US" and still my chickens are too expensive. Use all the economic models you like, but make sure to take into account, pathogens, residual chemicals, inhumane living conditions, carbon foot prints, quality of work-life in the both raising and slaughter, environmental degradation and medical conditions that we all pay for while the owners make millions for their greedy practices.
You can change their model; we all can make them change their model. It is as simple as buying local. Your choice, the choices you make every day when purchasing food can and does have an impact on their decision-making. Greed drives these people, not helping humanity or the environment, but lining their pockets with as much cash as they can. Moreover, you can make a difference if the choices you make help support your community farmer or farmers market. You will need to do some research to make sure you are dealing with a reputable farmer but that is the fun part. Ask to see the farm and the operations if you get anything other then “come on down,” walk away knowing you have identified a huckster, not someone that toils to bring you safe, fresh food.
God Bless and Season's Greetings from our family to yours.
Posted by Brian
@ 05:19 PM EST
We grow for health, our own, plants, layer and meat birds, soil, our customers and the environment. We supply our community with fresh, safe food and an environmental stewardship second to none. That is our mission and always our goal.
Our farm uses integrated pest management techniques in order to cut down on the need for sprays. We plant trap crops, use floating row covers, rotate crops and chickens to keep the bug populations down. Sometimes it works and sometimes you get new pests like the brown marmarated stinkbug.
Soils need resting in order to restore nutrients both micro and macronutrients. We rest soils so that they naturally restore themselves. Of course, we plant cover crops, nitrogen rich grasses, and winter rye for its deep taproots. The taproot digs down deep into the soil thus adding tilth and tunnels for water to travel. We move the chickens on the fresh cover crop and they pretty much turn it back into dirt before taken off the land. We will move them off to the next resting soil then re-seed the area they just left. This takes planning and timing. In Maryland, you will not get a good stand of forage if you plant seed after November10th. It just does not have time to establish itself before the freeze sets.
Soil rotation also controls pests, viruses and bacteria’s. If you keep planting the same thing in the same area, trouble will find you. We take the concept a step further by letting the soil naturally recover with a little push from us. The combinations of the nitrogen and tilth grasses create a nice biomass. The chickens eating grasses, bugs, weed seeds and turning the soil, while leaving natural fertilizer expedites this recovery process. It takes about three years for soils to replenish the nutrients and minerals that are depleted by the food that was grown on the land. Some food is harder then others, sweet corn is one of the bigger drains on soil nutrients. Corn is a heavy nitrogen feeder along with depleting micronutrients. We all know what happened in the dust bowl and crop rotation was developed as an answer. When we say soil rotation, we are talking about using a plot of land to grow fruits and vegetables, and then take it out of production for a period of time and plant cover crops as described above to rejuvenate.
We use as little spray as possible. I am not looking to grow perfect looking food. I am looking to grow healthy, fresh, safe, tasty food. We will never win any beauty contests because we grow for health not looks. Looks do not make you healthy but eating healthy makes, you feel good.
Buy Local: Now more then ever your food decisions make an impact
Posted by Brian
@ 01:23 PM EST
Fer Coadee is all work when outside, we still have a lot of training to go through, she is fast to learn but slow to change existing behavior. To which, when people drive up to the farm she is there to discourage them. Not good when you actually want the person to get out of the vehicle and visit. When we know people are coming, I have Coadee on the lead and try to calm her and change the behavior towards vehicles.
However, she is the master of her domain; nothing comes on the property without inspection and vetting by her. Once she has established that there is no threat to the chickens, she is fine. Her initial reaction upon contact needs tweaking because although the veterinarian said she is timid and passive, her work ethic is all business. Her bark is ferocious and to a person that does not know dogs at sixty pounds and all teeth she presents a formidable figure. We on the other hand know she would not hurt a day old chick let alone a person. Most people do not get out of the vehicle until she is on lead.
The visitors get to know her and she them and that is when the lead comes off. Coadee goes back to work protecting her charges. We have seen Coadee chase off dogs, foxes, deer although the latter is more fun for her then work, I think she gets drunk on power sometimes. We had one traumatic event with a hawk but it proved to be a positive even though we lost a layer.
Last fall Coadee was in the back of the house up on the porch were she could see all the hens. I came out of the barn and looked over to see all the birds under the trailer and in the house. That was odd because when I went into the barn they were doing their usual scratch and peck. Then I saw something move over near the tree line. It turned out to be a hawk that had just killed a hen. Why Coadee was on the porch and not over there I do not know, she had to of heard something, but then again I was closer and did not hear any commotion while in the barn.
I yelled and started to run to the hawk, thinking that charging would scare it away. It just sat there, turned its head slowly in my direction and stared me down. The hairs on the back of my neck stood up and I bristled with goosebumps. I looked for things to throw at it as I continued to yell, “Get out of here”. Coadee had come down to see what I was doing as I am throwing wood, sticks, rocks, anything I could find to scare the bird away. The hawk was unphazed and not about to leave its dinner behind. I finally got a branch close enough to the bird to scare it off. However, it just flew to lowest branch on the nearest tree. I went in the house and got my gun, I was not going to let this bird take one of my hens, dead or not it was still mine. Federal law prohibits the killing of hawks so I was not going to shoot it, but I could shoot near it to scare it further away.
After about five shots, the thing finally gave up and flew off. I picked the bird up and took it to the compost pile. Coadee was there the entire time, head down just following me as I went about the business of composting the hen. From that point forward when big birds fly near the farm she goes after them and barks. It is amazing to see because it took her all of one incident to know that she had another danger lurking about.
Recently, she showed her true work ethic much to the amazement of those on the farm. English Sheppards are smart dogs you need to vary the training and keep them active. If you have large herds (we do not) then the dog will keep itself occupied herding and protecting the farm animals.
One day, I was working Coadee on the lead, by having her stop, come close, move left, right, straight, sit, lay, stay while I walk away and other mental activities. As a reward I got the Frisbee out so we could play. I was throwing the Frisbee and she was fetching. One of the things she does is goes out and then I throw the Frisbee to her, other times I throw the disk and she chases after it to catch.
I had her go out and then I threw a short one to her, all of a sudden she runs toward me like she is going after the Frisbee but she passed right under it without an attempt to catch her prize. I realize she has seen a hawk and she had to go to protect her flock. My wife and I looked at each other, we had just witnessed a dog, go from playing to protector in an instant. They say that the English Sheppard is the original American farm dog and after that display, I can see the value in the breed. I joke about it, sometimes I say it is rough when you have a dog that is smarter then you are but then again, who would complain.
Buy Local: You do make a difference doing so
Posted by Brian
@ 08:30 AM EST
English Sheppard’s are known as America's farm dog. English and Scottish herdsman brought them here. The first known history of the work dog is from Caesar’s time. As Caesar’s army traveled, they had dogs, what is now known as the English Sheppard, keep the food moving with them. The food being, sheep, goats etc, as the heard dwindled; the dogs were left behind in the conquered areas. They were prized for their ability to heard, hunt and protect. Those instincts are still part of the breed today.
We got Fer Coadee (Scottish for protector) earlier then we wanted but we had suffered a devastating loss to our flock and we had no choice. After spending thousands of dollars on fencing and housing for protection nothing, we did short of keeping them cooped up all day kept them safe during the daylight hours. Yes, we had hawk attacks but at least with the hawks you knew the chicken was brought back to the nest and eaten. Neighborhood dog attacks, on the other hand, just kill, maim, and leave the chicken for dead all for the sport of the dog.
Therefore, we got a working dog to help protect our flock and our growing egg business. The dog attacks have abated although we have had twin chocolate labs on the property. Coadee chased them off and it was amazing how she did it. She took off after them barking they split up and Coadee went after the one closest to her. I could see her gaining on the dog and my heart started to jump. I did not want her to catch the lab and get into a fight. Much to my amazement, I could tell once she closed the distance between them she slowed some but kept up the ferocious barking until the dog past Coadee's area of protection. The next time the dogs were on the property I did not see them but Coadee did. She ran about a tenth of mile down to where the dogs were and gave chase. Again, I could see here gaining on the dogs but not overtaking. When the dogs got to the edge of the field of our property line Coadee gave up the chase. After that, I went to inform my neighbor that the law allowed me to protect my livestock to the point of the detriment of their beloved animals. That and any loses I suffered they were going to be libel for our expenses and future revenue. Leash laws are in place for multiple of reasons, safety being the high profile aspect, the safety for humans and livestock.
When Coadee came back limping from her last run-off I inspected her, we found her right paw bleeding between her toes. We called the dogcatcher who came out a couple of hours later. They asked about the dogs and after we described them, told us they knew who the owner was. Apparently, we were not the first to complain about these dogs roaming. I asked that we get the owners information in case we could not stop the dog’s paw from bleeding and had to take Coadee to the veterinarian. I was not about to pay for a vet bill I did not cause.
We got nothing from the dogcatcher. Two days later, I see the same two labs close to our meat birds, three times within the span of seven days. I got on the ATV and took after them. This time I chased them back to their owner. I admit I was angry and I tried to calm down but I have lost too many chickens to dog attacks. I saw the dogs run up to the person so I got off my ATV and went over to him. I knew but I asked anyway, “Are these your dogs?”.” Yes,” he replied. I went on to explain that Maryland law allows me to protect my livestock with deadly force. I begged him to keep his dogs on his property and not force me into killing his dogs. To say I was angry does not convey the total emotions that I was feeling. I just wanted him to control his dogs and follow the leash law,
Having buried over thirty chickens from dog attacks takes its toll, especially when you come home one day and find fifteen dead. As I have said before you spend a lot of time with organic chickens in order to keep them healthy until their immune system kicks in. Then you spend the next couple of years, feeding, watering and caring for them. At the end of four years, we process our layers and take them to the soup kitchen. This act helps us process because the last thing the layer does is help feed the poor and less fortunate among us. We have not been able to do this in over two years because of dog attacks.
We know they are dog attacks because any other predator takes the bird. With dogs, they just play with the chicken to death and do not feed on them. I knew a farmer that looked at predator attacks this way; if a snake gets an egg; well the snake has to eat. If a hawk gets a bird well the hawk has to eat and so on. However, dog attacks, they do not eat the birds they just kill and maim them for their entertainment. .
Thankfully, since that day we have not seen the dogs. I do not know what the dogcatchers did, the first couple of times they visited, but it did not scare the man enough to keep his dogs on his property. The dog catchers turned out to be useless, they knew the person, they talked to him before (which means his dogs were roaming off leash) and he continued to let them run. Then when we called the dogcatchers, they supposedly went over to talk to him. Yet, the dogs still roamed off leash. It is sad, to me, how the thought of having your animal killed finally makes one pay greater attention to the animals’ location. Nevertheless, that point seems to be what was needed in order to motivate the owner into keeping his dogs constrained.
Growing food has never been easy and you do your best to mitigate losses. However, I have learned that some things are out of my control especially when other humans are involved and responsible.
Buy Local: It is a value choice made with the future in mind.
Posted by Brian
@ 11:39 AM EDT
We are coming to the end of another growing season and we have had mixed results. I did not order a cultivator in time so weeds ate up the half acre of corn I planted. We got very little corn because of that, which means we spent money on seed and overhead only to get no return on the investment.
Lessons learned, from this year, included having the tools ready for the season before the season begins. Our newest flock of Rhode Island Reds is laying, so we opened up the nesting boxes and placed golf balls in each one. This helps the bird to know where to lay their egg. I know it sounds strange but I read that is what you are supposed to do. That or place a wooden egg in the nest. All I can say is that it works; now we do find eggs outside the nest sometimes but I have not been able to figure out why. The largest stash I found had thirty eggs and they were inside Coadee’s igloo doghouse. I really need to research laying out of the nest and make sure it is not a management issue.
Strawberries started strong and ended strong, a much-needed boost for us. We were flush in squash, so much so we could not sell it all. A note of caution, we had arranged to sell our produce to a local market, they were a startup so we expected some problems, but we did not expect to be taken advantage of and gouged on our prices. We were lowering our prices by fifty percent and the store was jacking up the cost to the customer fifty percent. Their making a fifty percent return and we were losing money. On top of that, when we took a load down it was rejected for being too small. The small ones are the ones that sell out first at the farmers markets. You learn these things as you go along. When dealing with markets, sometimes you get people that get it and sometimes you get people that are there for a paycheck.
I was taught to keep the intermediary (the middleman) out as much as possible and that is advice I pass on to other folks. The best markets we deal with pay us what we need to make a small profit. They then turn around and only charge five percent more to their customer. Therefore, they talk about helping local farmers and they do by paying a higher rate. When you find someone or an entity that gets it, hold them close and pay special attention to their needs. They will help you succeed. You will have to kiss many frogs; but when you find the one that gets it, be grateful, responsive and flexible. There will always be rough spots but patience will smooth the course.
We have given squash to the food banks, there is a restaurant in town that has a monthly “Pay as You Can” dinner on the third Sunday of the month and we gave them forty pounds along with herbs. However, the lion’s share of leftovers (one thousand pounds and counting) has gone to a local dairy farmer for his pigs. These are the biggest of the big, we could not keep up with harvesting and these things were huge. It is just amazing how fast squash goes from being a flower to four-pound behemoth. Our estimate is that it takes less then five days to get to the point of “to big”. Because we do not have the ability to harvest, everyday we were put in the glut we are in now.
We met three new farmers who are starting out growing. That was exciting to see, young growers getting into producing healthy fresh vegetables. Some we will help get certified others we have pointed to state and federal resources. To hear them speak they have the right attitude and understanding of the path they chose. Pretty much the first thing out of everyone’s mouth is “this is hard,” but it is rewarding. Making it economically sustainable is another function that needs conquering.
Posted by Brian
@ 09:05 AM EDT
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Rhode Island Red
We have been raising RIR layers since 2005, we picked them because we learned they are a recovering species, and known as a dual bird, used for their meat or eggs the bird is great for homesteading. They just take longer to get to their revenue generating stage. They take longer to start laying eggs and for the males to get up to weight as apposed to their crossbred cousins. Hence, their demise as production birds for the masses and their near extinction on farms.
We found all of their traits to be true. We also found that the meat bird might be small but it is flavorful. Moreover, once they start to lay they are prolific layers. They lay an egg every twenty-five hours or so and they do this for about three years. They then start to decline from one a day to one every two, then one for every three and so on.
By the fifth year they pretty much stop laying and this is were the worst part of farming comes into play. I have chronicled coming to terms with processing meat birds, and the layers. Meat bird are around a lot less time then layers. Meat birds are only around for ten to twelve weeks and although I work with them, everyday I do not get as attached. That is because the meat bird never gets over the skittishness.
Behaviorally, the layers go the opposite direction, once they start to lay. I was giving a tour when one of them jumped up on my shoulder, it was the first and only time that happened but it was proof that they get over their shyness. When the layers see you coming one will start running towards you with this funny little waddle of a gate. Another will see the first one and start to run, then the rest will come, some will flap their wings and take flight (if you call being six inches off the ground and cover a distance of three feet flying) but it is the cutest sight and no matter the situation just brings a smile to your face.
By the second year, they not only come up to you, but they squat down to be picked up, they jump on the tractor and ATV and ride with you. Here is a picture of one on the ATV.
I took a couple of pictures and then decided to see if it would ride with me to go feed her family. I did not think fast enough because I could have taken a video. I will be prepared next time, but I did take a couple of shots while we were moving. She stayed on until I got around the barn then she decided the ride was over. Yes, they are skittish at first, however when giving tours the older ones are at their best while delighting both child and adult.
Buy Local: Buy non-gmo, chemically free food for your health and that of the land.
Posted by Brian
@ 08:37 AM EDT